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Introduction

This index covers only the main articles that have been produced in the Belfry Bulletin.  It does not cover any news snippets, regular features such as “On the Hill”, which was mainly news of people or progress in digs and caves.

The first sheet shows the main categories and on which page to find the main topics.  The biggest topic is of course, caving, which has several sub-indexes, which are shown in italics.  Climbing also has sub-indexes.

The list only shows the Belfry Bulletin Number, as to show the page would not bee very helpful, as there are three separate issues for each Bulletin.  The first issue is the original, which had a various number of different sizes and fonts; the second issue is a reformatted issue, which is all on A4 size pages and uses a common font, which is Times New Roman at point 11; the third edition is the one on the web site, which has been taken from the second issue.  The second issue is also available if anybody wishes a copy of them.

At the back of the index are a few statistics, relating mainly to issue two, but gives a very good indication as the size of each Bulletin.

The next page show how each issue relates to its volume and year of publication.  A few discrepancies will be noted: -

  • Issue 341 was never issued.  It was produced and printed on one side of each sheet, but the stencils were then destroyed by the printing machine, when it broke down, and they were never retyped.
  • Issues 263 to 269 were skipped when the editor found he couldn’t count, so they do not exist.
  • Issue 48 was never completed or issued, but a copy has been found, and what there is has been reproduced.

 

 

After the first year of the Bulletin, the magazine became a monthly issue, with a few hiccoughs.  Where an issue was produced to cover two months, they were sometimes given two numbers, such as can be seen in volume 5 and volume 10.

Most of the early issues were only 4 to six pages long, only rather quarto of foolscap size of paper.  In 1960, number 143 was produced on a foolscap paper, but printed sideways so that the number of pages could be doubled but still keep the same number of sheets of paper.  This continued until 1968, when it reverted back to quarto.  In 1975, the Belfry Bulletin was then produced on A5 size of paper, maintaining a fair number of pages.  In 1977, it was decided to print the Belfry bulletin on A4 size paper, where it has remained today. In 1980, it was found to be difficult to maintain a monthly magazine, using A4 size paper, and from then onwards, the monthly issue became approximately two monthly, with a volume covering each year, until 2002, when even this numbering system went out of the window.  Nowadays, issues only come as and when.


Volumes

Volume

Year

Numbers

Volume 1

1947

1,2,3,4,5,6,7

Volume 2

1948

8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17,18

Volume 3

1949

19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30

Volume 4

1950

31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42

Volume 5

1951

43,44,45,46/47,48,49/50,51,52

Volume 6

1952

53,54,55,56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64

Volume 7

1953

65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72,73,74,75,76

Volume 8

1954

77,78,79,80,81,82,83,84,85,86,87

Volume 9

1955

88,89,90,91,92,93,94,95,96,97,98,99

Volume 10

1956

100,101/102,103,104,105,106,107,108

Volume 11

1957

109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119

Volume 12

1958

120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131

Volume 13

1959

132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142

Volume 14

1960

143,144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154

Volume 15

1961

155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162,163,164,165,166

Volume 16

1962

167,168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176,177,178

Volume 17

1963

179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189, 190

Volume 18

1964

191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199,200,201,202

Volume 19

1965

203,204,205,206,207,208,209,210,211,212,213,214

Volume 20

1966

215,216,217,218,219,220,221,222,223,224,225,226

Volume 21

1967

227,228,229,230,231,232,233,234,235,236,237

Volume 22

1968

238,239,240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249

Volume 23

1969

250,251,252,253,254,255,256,257,258,259,260,261

Volume 24

1970

262,270,271,272,273,274,275,276,277,278,279,280

Volume 25

1971

281,282,283,284,285,286,287,288,289,290

Volume 26

1972

291,292,293,294,295,296,297,298,299,300,301,302

Volume 27

1973

303,304,305,306,307,308,309,310,311,312,313,314

Volume 28

1974

315,316,317,318,319,320,321,322,323,324,325,326

Volume 29

1975

327,328,329,330,331,332,333,334,335,336,337

Volume 30

1976

338,339,340,,342,343,344,345

Volume 31

1977

346,347,348,349,350,351,352,353,354,355,356

Volume 32

1978

357,358,359,360,361,362,363,364,365,366,367,368

Volume 33

1979

369,370,371,372/373,374,375,376/377,377,378,379,380

Volume 34

1980

381,382,383,384/385,386/387,388/389,390,391/392

Volume 35

1981

393/394,395/396,397,398/399,400,401,402/403

Volume 36

1982

404/405,406/407,408/409,410/411,412-415,416

Volume 37

1983/84

417,418,419,420,421,422

Volume 38

1984

423,424,425,426

Volume 39

1985

427,428,429,430,431,432

Volume 40

1986

433,434,435,436,437,438

Volume 41

1987

439,440,441,442,443

Volume 42

1988

444,445,446,447

Volume 43

1989

448,449,450,451,452

Volume 44

1990

453,454,455,456,457

Volume 45

1991

458,459,460,461,462

Volume 46

1992

463,464,465,466

Volume 47

1993/94

467,468,469,470,471,472,473,474,475

Volume 48

1995

476,477,478,479,480,481

Volume 49

1996/97

482,483,484,485,486,487,488,489,490,491,492,493

Volume 50

1998/99

494,495,496,497,498,499,500,501,502,503,504,505

Volume 51

2000/01

506,507,508,509,510,511,512

Volume 52

2002

513,514

Volume 53

2003/04

515,516,517,518,519,520

Volume 54

2005

521,522,523

 


Annual General Meetings

 

194x

195x

196x

197x

198x

199x

200x

0

 

 

152

287

400

457

 

1

 

 

176

298

none

463

 

2

 

54

188

300; 308; 309

none

468

 

3

 

 

none

322

426

470

 

4

 

79

200

332

430

476

 

5

 

85

212

342

431

482

 

6

1

100-101

226

344; 350

437

488

 

7

8

110

235

 

442

495

 

8

18

129

none

374*; 375*;375

451

none

 

9

32

141

176

386-387

none

508

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

* = This was for an EGM


Belfry Matters

Belfry Improvements                                   417

Belfry News                                               1; 2; 3; 13; 17; 23; 24

Building a Belfry                                        62; 63; 64; 65; 66; 145; 149; 150

Building for the Belfry                                 408-409

Belfry Rules                                              74

Exodus                                                     14

Do we want a New Belfry?                          223

Long Term Planning                                   225; 226; 227; 228; 229; 319; 321

Proposed Alterations                                  347; 383


Caving

A Chicken’s Guide to Caving                      481

Above Ground                                           6

After Glow/Luminescence                          171; 172; 173

An Unusual Cave Rescue                           363

Artic Norway                                             355

Are You on a Safe Lifeline                          326

Camping Underground                               77

Carslbad Caverns                                      284

Cave Access and Control                           309

Cave Art                                                   171

Cave Diving                                               186

Cave Flora                                                15

Cave Grading Severity                                320

Cave Photography                                     See page 9

Cave Surveying                                         See page 9

Cavern of Ludchurch (Staffs)                       166

Caving and Diving in Oman                         470; 477; 480

Caving in Africa                                         22

Caving in Aruba                                         468

Caving in Australia                                     500; 507; 510;

Caving in Austria                                       See page 9

Caving in Belgium                                      174; 231; 383

Caving in Britain                                        See page 10

Caving in Central Kentucky                        464

Caving in China                                         450; 468

Caving in Crete                                          292; 512

Caving in Cuba                                          464; 466

Caving in Eastern USA                              448

Caving in France                                       See page 18

Caving in Germany                                    22; 226; 500

Caving in Gibraltar                                     364; 380

Caving in Greece                                       230; 326; 360

Caving in Hungary                                     501

Caving in India                                           See page 19

Caving in Ireland                                        See page 19

Caving in Italy                                           354; 359; 369; 376-377; 383

Caving in Jamaica                                     448; 462; 478

Caving in Lebanon                                     190

Caving in Malaya                                       111; 118

Caving in Malta                                         302

Caving in Mexico                                       418; 433; 460; 483

Caving in Morocco                                     215

Caving in New Mexico                                511

Caving in New Zealand                               391-392434; 435; 450

Caving in Pakistan                                     497

Caving in Palestine                                    8

Caving in Salawesi                                    477; 478; 482

Caving in Saudi Arabia                               434

Caving in Saurland                                     64; 488

Caving in South Africa                                360; 390; 391-392; 393-394; 452

Caving in Spain                                         See page 19

Caving in Sweden                                      307

Caving in Switzerland                                 210; 211; 217; 241; 290; 371

Caving in Tasmania                                   515

Caving in Thailand                                     443; 445; 500

Caving in the Falkland Islands                    476

Caving in The Philippines                           448; 449; 452; 455; 456; 479; 483; 490; 499

Caving in Vietman                                     464; 498; 515

Caving in Yugoslavia                                  282; 462

Caving in Zanzibar                                     521

Caving on Bonaire                                     466

Caving with Yogi and Spacemen (USA)       481

Communication/Radio                                210; 247; 305; 393-394

Deneholes of Hangman’s Wood                  321; 323

Fish Pot (Cotswolds)                                 395-396

Forest of Dean                                          187

Geyser Stalagmites                                   178

Going Solo                                               427

Have you got the Right Equipment              61

High Flying Caver Drops a Bollock              455

How to Avoid Caving Trips                          364

How to Increase Membership                     78

Ice Formations in Caves                             190

If its Caving You Do                                   721

In Praise of Naked Lights                           167

Lava Caves of Lanzarote                            455

Lifelining, A Safe Approach                        359

Mammoth Cave                                         479

Otter Hole                                                 326

Passages Named Pooh                             506

Past Exploits of a (Not Very Bold) Caver     505

Pate Hole                                                 366

Pumacocha (Andes)                                  513; 515; 516; 521

Romania 1989                                           471

Route Severity Diagrams                            250; 251; 253; 255; 256; 261

Safety                                                      13

Safety in Cave Diving                                 453

Secondary Lighting                                    158

Slit Sided Stalactites                                 208

Some Continental Show Caves                   434

Some Thoughts on the Leader system        150

Sussex Underground                                 471

Tailor Made                                               340

Them Muddy ‘Oles                                    470

This Caving                                               73

Try Anything Once                                    81

Weil’s Disease                                          360

What’s in a Name                                     454

Why I am a Caver                                      174

Yorkshire Pot (Canada)                              416

 


Cave Photography

Cave Photography                                    157; 160; 220; 221; 260

Colour Photography in Caves                    69

Early Photographers and Their Work         460-407

Equipment for Cave Photography               299; 302

Exploring by Camera                                124

Multiple Flash Unit                                   240; 245

Starting Cave Photography                       39


Cave Surveying

A Brief Review on the Theory Available to the Cave Surveyor          253

Drawing of Accurate Cave Surveys                        256; 258

Electromagnetic Surveying                                   132

Further Thoughts on Surveying                             170

Grading Must Go                                                 297

Notes on Cave Surveying                                     86; 89; 94; 100

On Describing the Accuracy of a Cave Survey        255

Photographic Cave Surveying                               327

Some Comments on the Recent Surveying Articles           171

Some Thoughts on Cave Surveying Grading           169

Sunto Instrument Bracket and Maintenance           363

Surveys Past and Future                                      316

The Logistics of Cave Surveying                            203

Barometers in Caves                                           142; 149; 161; 257

Traverse Closure in Cave Surveying                       303; 304

 


Caving in Austria

Ahnenschacht                                         237; 239; 246; 261

Austria 1965                                            214

Austria 1981/82                                       412-415

Austria 1983                                            417; 423

Austria 1986                                            436;439

Austria 1990                                            457

Austria 1993                                            474

Caves in Upper Austria                             249

Dachstein                                               201; 366; 370; 379; 388

Dachstein 1986                                       436

Dachstein 1991                                       464

Dachstein 1994                                       475

Dachstein 1999                                       506

Dachstein 2000                                       508; 512

Eislufthohle                                             378

Exploration in the Dachstein area 1992-1997        503

Jager Hohle                                             436

New Austrian Discovery                            259

Raucher Week                                        222

The Exploration of C33                             510

Totes Girbirger                                         354; 366

 


Caving in Britain

Caving in Derbyshire                                See below

Caving in South West England                  See below

Caving in the Isle of Wight                        141

Caving in the Mendip Area                        See page 11

Caving in Scotland                                   See page 15

Caving in Wales                                       See page 16

Caving in Wiltshire                                   327; 340; 517

Caving in Yorkshire                                  See page 17

 


Caving in Derbyshire

B.E.C. Visit to Derbyshire                        99

Caving in Derbyshire                                91; 93; 100; 101-103

Club Trip to Derbyshire (1952)                   57

Club Trip to Derbyshire (1964)                   197

Darfar Pot                                               422

Happy Birthday Stan (Peak Cavern)           368

Into the Devil’s Arse                                 363

Knotlow Caverns                                      504

Peak Cavern Again                                  374

Pot Bottomer’s Delight                             166

 


Caving in South West England

A Cave at Newton Abbot                           123

Bakers Pit                                               35

Brixham Bone Cave                                 189

Caves at Berry Head                                435; 439

Caves at Branscombe                              506

Caves of Cornwall                                    9; 12; 26; 313

Kents Cavern                                           173

Pipers Hole (Scilly Isles)                          384-385

Plymouth Caves                                      6

Portland Assaulted                                  391-392

Pridhamsleigh Cave                                 8; 24; 356

Raiders Rift                                             140

Reeds Cavern                                          19

Rocky Acres Cave                                   459

Sea Caves at Studland                             401

Smugglers Hole                                       4

The Caves of Buckfastleigh                       23

Wareham’s Cave                                     406-407

Whiting Hole                                           478

 


Caving in the Mendip Area

 

Attborough Swallet

Avelines Hole

Badger Hole

Balch’s Hole

Banwell Caves

Bildon’s Mole Project

Bleadon and Hutton Caverns

Blockhead Slocker

Bog Hole

Bowery Corner Swallet

Burrington Coombe

Burrington Master Cave

Castle Farm Swallet

Caves on Brean Down

Caves on Bristol Waterworks Land

Charterhouse Cave

 

Cheddar Caves

497

252

4

166; 169; 170

372-373; 376-377

509

496

166

2

442; 453; 457

64; 307; 505

420

188; 195

523

140

410-411

 

A Brief History of Gough’s Caves

A Lost Cave Site at Cheddar Caves

Bigger, Better, Enormous Extensions

Blood Chits for Cheddar Caves

Cheddar River Cave

Coopers Hole

Cox’s Cave; Souvenir China

The 150th Anniversary of Cox’s Cave

The Enigmas of Cheddar Caves

Thixotropia Blues

440

384-385

384-385

252

434; 444

388-389; 39-392

518

442

397

439

Christmas Hole

Contour Cavern

Cross Swallet

Crystal Pot

Diggers Corner

East Twin Swallet

 

168

238

24

37

494

250

Eastwater Cavern

A New System in Eastwater Cavern

Boulder Chamber and Ifold’s Series

Digging Burnished Passage

Eastwater Cavern

Flooding Incident

History of Terminal Rift Digging

History off Various Digs

Life, The Universe and Eastwater

Mellow Digs & Russian Womans Hands

Morton’s Pot Dig

Morton’s Pot – The Final Solution

Radio Location in Eastwater

Trial ands Tribulations of Eastwater

West End Series

White Elephant Breeding Grounds

 

46-47

433

498

419

445

441

481

518

521

475; 516

522

424

519

420; 438; 445

57

Elm Cave

Emborough swallet

Fairy Cave Area

Fernhill Cave

Five Buddles Sink

G.B.

Goatchurch

Halloween Rift

Hazelnut Swallet

Heale Farm Cave

Henry’s Hole

Hillgrove Water Tracing

Honeymeade Hole

Hunter’s Hole

 

Hunter’s Lodge Inn Sink

391-392

137; 238

143; 296; 503; 505; 506

154

481; 494; 495; 500; 501

143

19; 77; 226

416; 419

500

247

417

252

146

127; 240; 514

 

As Hunter’s Lodge Inn Sink articles are a story of continuing exploration, they are in date order.

Beginning

Last Laugh

Dis Cam

Following the Stream

The Good and Bad News

Beyond the Drip Tray Sump

Broon Ale Boulevard

Dives and Climbs

Hair of the Dog Sump

Pushing the Streamway

Pushing the Barsteward & Filming

Hangover Hill and Stillage Sump

Summer Season at Stillage Sump

Digging Update

Below Pewter Pot

511

514

514

515

515

516

516

517

517

518

518

518

519

522

523

Ife Hole

Jill’s Cave

Lamb Leer

Lionel’s Hole

Little Crapnell

Lodmore Hole

Longwood/August

Lost Caves of Mendip, The

Loxton Cavern Rediscovered

Maesbury Swallet

Manor Farm

Nine Barrows Swallet

North Hill Swallet

On the Naming of Caves

Ore’s Close, Its cave and Mines

Peak’s Hole

Pen Park Hole

Priddy Green Sink

Redcliffe Caves

Reservoir Hole

Reynold’s Rift

Rhino Rift

Rocket Drop Cave

Rose Cottage Cave

 

38

183

194; 476

361; 390

496

519

53; 54; 484

505

520

238

312; 358; 388-389; 401

167; 232; 238

498

183

517

42

156

484; 195; 502; 503

24; 25; 31; 76

510

318

311; 482; 481; 502

368

522; 523

Saint Cuthbert’s Swallet

A Psychological Experiment

Account of Recent Activity (1958)

Annexe Chamber

Bug Hunting in Cuthbert’s

Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in the Air

Cuthbert’s Early Map

Cuthbert’s Geology

Cuthbert’s Rescue

Cuthbert’s Revisited

Cuthbert’s Two

Dig in Gour Rift, The

Digging

Diving Operation

Dragged from St. Cuthbert’s

Fixed Tackle in St. Cuthbert’s

Formations in Cuthbert’s

Further Thoughts on St. Cuthbert’s

Hanging Chamber

Highways and Byways if Cuthbert’s

Incident 24/1/1960

Laddering St. Cuthbert’s

Lake Chamber

Lead Sediments in St. Cuthbert’s

Long Chamber Extension

Marble Pot

Maypole Series

On a Trip on a Trip?

On Crossing the Gower Fault

Plantation Stream

Practice Rescues

Report of a New Discovery (1962)

Return of the Natives

September Series

Sequence of Development of Cuthbert’s

St. Cuthbert’s - Young or Old

St. Cuthbert’s III

St. Cuthbert’s Report

Stream Feeding into Cuthbert’s

Sump II.  Where do we go from here

Surveying in Cuthbert’s

Swimming in St. Cuthbert’s

Tourist Routes

Towards Wookey Hole

Uranium Dating of St. Cuthbert’s

Waster Temperatures

Water into Cuthbert’s

Water Tracing

Why I’m Glad I’m Thin

 

208

128

194

170

499

133

171

216; 226

358

261; 274; 275

296; 315

238; 254

228

495

284

152

346; 366

125; 410-411

190; 209

144

233

242

358

410-411

381

126

402-403

212

166; 167

184; 195; 197; 198; 207; 211; 242; 248; 404-405

178

237

135; 160

200; 20

493

408-409

114; 116

482; 496

519

145; 146; 227

491

198

241; 241

485

118; 119; 120; 226

318

29; 296

109

Saint George’s Cave

Sandpit

Sandford Gulf

Scramble Swallet

Second Tier Cave

Shatter Hole

Sidcot Swallet

Sludge Pit

Snake Pit

Some Caves near Bristol

Stewart’s Hole

 

 

 

Stock House Shaft

408-409

473

426

110

278

254; 261; 505

240; 305

481; 424

481

48

3

 

 

 

As Stock House Shaft articles are a story of continuing exploration, they are in date order.

Another Lost Cave Rediscovered

A Small Cave Becomes a Large  Mine

A Winter’s Tale

The Spring Offensive

Summer Madness

Winter Draws On

Towards the Hundredth Ton

Digging into History

The Breakthrough

 

502

504; 505

506

507

508

509

510

511

512

Stoke Lane Slocker

 

50 Years a 20

A Serious Warning

Beyond Cairn Chamber

Can You Find a Better Hole?

Chrococcus Turgidus

Flooding

History

New Discoveries

Some Interesting Theories

 

494

26

5

25

40

15

497

182; 293

20

Swildons Hole

 

A Broadcast

Before the Flood

Diving

Diving to Excess

Exploration of the Nether Regions

Exploring Swildons Hole

Free Diving to Swildons 9

Long Round Trip

My First Caving Trip

Rescue

Stereoscopic Survey

Sump 12

Swildons Four

Swildons goes to Wookey

Swildons in Flood

Swildons Revisited

Vicarage Passage

58

338

133

449

59

348

290

291

131

196; 210

368

393-394; 495

115; 131

227

501

475

408-409

Tankards Hole

Thrupe Lane Swallet

Twin Titty Hole

Tynings Barrow Swallet

Upper Flood Swallet

Viaduct Sink

Waldegrave Swallet

Waterlip Quarry Cave

 

120; 134; 135

199; 369; 458; 516; 517

401

347; 360; 416

433

377-378; 381

509

362

White Pit

 

The Waste of Thyme

Management/Access

St. Alactite’s Hall

Foul Air in Cave Digs

Welsh’s Green Swallet

Prophecy Pot Extensions

As White Pit articles are a story of continuing exploration, they are in date order.

468

472

478

491

495

496

Wigmore Swallet

As Wigmore Swallet articles are a story of continuing exploration, they are in date order.

Dig

Success to Bolde Myners

Christmas at Wigmore

End of Part One

Breakthrough

Revisited Some Further Thoughts

Still More about Wigmore

Revisited Again

Excavation and Exploration

Digging News

Notes of Survey

Diving

Only Another 5.75 Miles to Cheddar

Death Throes

Upstream Sump 3 Extension

356

357

359

368

371

391-392

393-394

406-407

460

461

462

466

467

469

498

Windsor Hill Swallet

Withybrook Swallet

 

Wookey Hole

441

7; 8; 318; 328

65 Years of Diving

Cam Valley Passage

Dye Tracing

Exploration 23 – 25

Free Diving to Nine

Recent Exploration (1996)

Rescue at Wookey

Stopped by Mud

Survey

Up the Wadi

Water Studies

Where to in Wookey

Wookey 1997

508

418

363

364

319

488

186

481

382

418

501; 504

495

494





 


Caving in Scotland

A couple of Small Caves in Scotland         465

A Fortean Experience in Assynt                492

Annual Dinner Rescue                              499

Assynt Again in August                            469

Assynt Antics                                         460

Assynt Descents                                     465

Assynt in October                                    500

Elphin Epics                                            468

Highland Fling                                         455

Just Another Swift Half                             481

Much Wittering on the Moors                    504

New Discoveries in Cnoc Nan Uamh          475

Rob Roy’s Cave                                       148

Scotland (1998)                                       497

Some Scottish Caves                               154

Surveying on Staffa                                  523

Sutherland (1978)                                    246

Ten go Caving in Sutherland                      466

Tree Hole                                                460

Uamha a’ Bhrisdedh – Duile & Tree Hole    468

 


Caving in Wales

 

A Caving meet in South Wales

A New Cave Near Brecon

Agen Allwedd

Beneath Llangattwg

Callan Pot

Caving in Mynydd Ddu

Caving in North Wales

Caving in South Wales

Caving on the Gower

Ceirog Caves

195

190

184; 219; 236; 443; 445

362

214

504

10; 32; 61; 153

117; 121; 242

288

29

Club Trip to South Wales

Cwm Dwr

Dan-yr-Ogof

 

226

336

219; 236; 282; 391-392; 517

 

Daren Cilau

 

Daren Cilau Extension – The Story so Far

Daren Cilau

Extension on Llangattock Mountain

Nine Days of Hard Rock Hospitality

Daren on the Move

Progress in the Far reaches of Daren Cilau

First Impressions

Unfinished Business in Daren Cilau

The B.E.C. in Daren Cilau in 2004

As Daren Cilau articles are a story of continuing exploration, they are in date order.

433

434; 435; 437; 440

438

439

442

449

452

494

521

Digging in the Clydach Gorge

Gower – Pays des Caverns

Llangattwg Caves Update (1988)

Little Neath River Cave

Llethrid Cave

Nant-y-Glais

New Caves at Ystradfeltte

Ogof Ffynnon Ddu

Ogof Hasp Alyn

Ogof Rhyd Sych

Pant Pawr Pothole

Porth-yr-Ogof

Rock and Fountain

South Pembrokeshire

Tunnel Cave

Twll Gwyn Oer

Whitsun in Pembroke

462

90

447

262; 397

28; 193

340

190

39; 120; 239; 247; 253; 257

421

397

290

285

356; 367

357

362

376-377

213

 


Caving in Yorkshire

A No Name Article                                   364

A Visit to North Pennine in Autumn           87

All to Pot                                                318

B.E.C. Expedition to Yorkshire (1978)       361

Back Door to White Scar                          393-394

Beginners (and Friends)                           335

Birks Fell                                                314

Black Shiver – Attempt                             255

Black Shiver – Success                           260

Car Pot                                                   273

Caving in the Raw                                    461

Connecting Pippikin to Lancaster              372-373

Diccan/Alum Through Trip                         328

Easter 1966                                            218

Gaping Gill                                              225; 314; 517; 523

Ireby Fell Cavern                                      207

Juniper Gulf                                             252; 356

Langstroth Pot                                         309; 314

Large Pot                                                417

Link Pot                                                  384-385

Lost Johns New Roof Traverse                  275

Meregill                                                   254

New Finds in Valley Entrance                   339

New Year, Caving in the Dales                  371

Northern Weekend                                   337

Notts Pot                                                261

Penyghent Pot                                        250; 278

Pippikin Pot                                            344; 358

Potholing in Yorkshire                              105

Providence Pot to Dow Cave                     401

Shafts and All That                                  274

Simpson to Swinsto Non-exchange           248

Some Lesser Yorkshire Caves                  295

Straws Two Metres Long                          517

Stream Passage Pot                                262

Swinsto at Last                                       499

Swinsto Hole                                           307

Swinsto/Kingsdale                                   275

Tatum Wife Hole                                      324

The Descent of King Pot                           364

The Mohole                                             333

The Northern Caving Scene                       274

The S.M.D.T. in Yorkshire                        304

There Smaller Caves of Wharfdale             300

Trip to Upper Easgill                                 64

Whitsun in Yorkshire (1962)                      161

Whitsun in Yorkshire (1966)                      221

Whitsun in Yorkshire (1976)                      343

Whitsun in Yorkshire (1978)                      365

Yorkshire                                                281; 294; 300; 328; 380

 


Caving in France

A Few Notes on French Caves                  88

Aven d’Orgnac                                         36

B.E.C. at P.S.M.                                     323

B.E.C. Summer Holidays in the Pyrenees  462

Bel Espoir – Dia Traverse                         404-405

Berger 1985                                            433

Berger 1985 – Getting There                     432

Buckets and Pails in the Ardeche             404-405

Causse du Gramat, Easter (1999)             503

Cave Diving in the Dordogne                      512

Cave Paintings of Le Portal                       281

Caves in the Pyrenees – Grotte de Gargas 31

Caves in the Pyrenees – Niaux                 30

Caving in France                                      254

Caving in the Lot                                      478

Completely Bergered?                              427

Diving Record in the Dordogne                  509

Dordogne (1989)                                      454

Dordogne (1990)                                      462

Dordogne Revisited                                  484

Expedition Ariege                                    261

France (1981)                                          402-403

France (1983)                                          440

French Caving Techniques                        22

From Vercours Plateau to Ardeche Gorge  406-407

Going to the Caves                                  512

Gouffre de Corbeaux                                157

Gouffre de la Pierre St. Martin                   249

Gouffre of Coume Ferrat                           276

Grotte de Moulin Maquis                          471

L’Aven Grotte de Marzell                          42

La Cave and Padirac                                288

Lascaux II, Montignac, Brive                     446

Le Grand Souce                                      504

Le Grotte de Favot                                   43

Le Grotte du Bournillon                             41

Maypole Dance                                       325

More French Show Caves                         442

Notes on a Caving Trip to France               17

P.S.M. (1975)                                          335

Pyrenees (1974)                                      330

Show Caving in the Ardeche                     437

Tanne de Bel Espoir - Diau                       511

The Fives Caves Show                             290

The Great Cave of Chevre-Eglise               290

The Mines of Le Saut, Mribel                    495

The Subterranean River of Brambiau          33

The Voyage of the “Calypso”, Dordogne     452

Trip to the Berger                                     291

Underground Laboratories of Moulis           190

Vercours, South West France                   388-389

 


Caving in India

Meghalaya (1994)                                    476

Meghalaya (1997)                                    494

Meghalaya (1998)                                    496

Meghalaya (1998)                                    467

Meghalaya (1998)                                    468

Meghalaya (1999)                                    501

Meghalaya (2000)                                    507

Meghalaya (2002)                                    514

Meghalaya (2003)                                    516

Meghalaya (2004)                                    519

India’s Third longest Cave                         513

Meghalaya (2005)                                    522

 


Caving in Ireland

Down The Thurlough                                 419

Ireland (1954)                                          85

Ireland (1967)                                          232

Ireland (1975)                                          239

Ireland (1986)                                          425

Ireland (1994)                                          474

Poll Na G Ceim                                       435

Pollaraftra                                               209

Sleepless in a Skoda                               499

Stretching Time in County Clare                410-412

Tales from County Cork                            459

The Lads in Ireland (1984-1986)                 451

Trip to Clare (1985)                                  432

Trip to Clare (1986)                                  434

Trip to County Clare (1995)                       479

 


Caving in Spain

A Visit to la Cueva de Nerja                      156

Badalona                                                474

BU56 (1991)                                            466

Casteret’s Ice Cave                                  463

Shrimpbones, Mongooses & Porcupines    509

Sima G.E.S.M.                                        463

Spain (1962)                                            168

Spanish for Beginners                              453

Systema Cueto – Coventoso- Cuvera         511

The Grand Tour – Caving Style                  365

Tito Bustillo – Northern Spain                    404-405

 


Climbing

4,000's in Winter, The                              282

A Climb on Dartmoor                                109

A Day in Letterewe Forest                        290

A New Climb at Black Rock Quarry           301

A Rope Ladder for a Crevasse Rescue       154

A Trip to Spitsbergen                               100

Along the Cumbrian Way                          423

Analysis of an Accident                            240

Are Rock Climbers Lazy                           64

Austrian Tyrol                                          62

Balatious                                                501

Black Mountains, The                              65

Bluebell Quarry Climbs                             430

BMC Saga                                              355

British West Indies                                  19

Caerfai SW Face 1974                             329

Changabang                                            362

Cheddar                                                  31

Climbing???????                                     499

Climbing for the Over 40's                         468

Climbing Huts in Wales                            107

Climbing in 1971-1972                              295

Climbing in Cornwall                                 172; 298

Climbing in SE England                            22; 194

Dewar Stones                                          66

Don't Eat Yellow Snow                             362

Easter 1971 in Scotland                           289

Easter in Cornwall                                    147

Edward Whymper                                    498

Enchanted Mountain, the                          273

Fred Davies Forty?                                   313

In the Brecon Beacons                             292

In the Cuillins                                          281

Islands and Highlands                              108

Jane, Spain, Plane                                   458

Just Like Old Times                                 109

Lake District                                            See page 21

Living in Style                                          271

Loch Coruisle                                          243

Losing a Mountain                                   94

Mount Cameroon                                     38

Near Massacre at Glen Coe                      99

Neouvielle                                               311

North Wales                                            See page 21

On Climbing 'Victis'                                  262

On the Ice Factor                                     523

Open Air Caving                                       306

Otzatler Alpen and Bernina                       247

Peak District                                           3

Pembrokeshire                                        197

Personal reflections on Climbing               324

Rescue in Langdale                                 242

Scotland                                                 242

Search for Pant-y-Crac                             510

Simonds Yat                                           196

Skiing on Blackdown                                190

Ski Mountaineering                                  296

Skye                                                      91; 97; 209

Snow and Ice in Scotland                         114

Snowdon at Sunrise                                 106

Some Climbing Snippets                          458

Some Peaks in the NW Highlands            352

Static in the Cairngorms                           399

Swanage                                                 251

Switzerland 1975                                     338

Torridon '70                                             283

Utopia on Mendip                                     251

Weekend on the Dewerstone                    184

Why go to Iceland                                    76

 


Climbing in Lake District

A Dryish Easter in the Lakes                    352

A long Weekend in Langdale                    291

A Month in the Cumbrian Mountains          154

A Week in the Lakes (1953)                     73

A Week in the Lakes (1975)                     328

Another Menace Episode                         20

Buttermere Fells                                      326

Christmas (1950)                                     43

Christmas (1951)                                     53

Faith and Friction                                    16

Surrey North Independent Transport to the Lake District   398-399

 


Climbing in North Wales

A New Way Off Yr Elen                            152

Another Mighty Saga                               41

Blaenant Farm                                        44

Climbing in November                              201

Dicing in North Wales                              35

High Camp on Crib-y-Ddysgl                     83

In Search of Snow                                   123

Lliwedd                                                   42

Occasional Writings of the Climbing Section       283

Racing in North Wales                             129

Running an Instructional Course                98

Sell’s Baptism                                         237

Snow and Ice in North Wales                    251

Snow Ridge Climb                                   43

Snowdonia in January                              294

The Great Gully of Craig-yr-Isfa                 131

The Years Climbing (1965)                       214

Two Cliffs in Llanberis                              80

Weekend in North Wales                         110; 122; 152; 154; 178; 182; 189; 191; 192; 198; 199; 280; 281; 300; 326; 330

Whitsun (1950)                                        37

Yet Another North Wales Trip                   304


Geology and Archaeology

Archaeology                                            11; 128; 159; 161; 163; 165

Rocks in South America                          10

Bones in Stoke Lane                               40

Belfry Site                                               40; 42; 43

Cadbury Camp                                        139

Dating of Archaeological Specimens         64

Palaeolithic Art at Naiux                           270

Torridon Sandstone                                  135

 


History

A Night to Remember                              504

A statistical History of the B.E.C.             521

BB 300                                                   311

Belfry in 1949, The                                   502

Christmas 1962                                       302

Early days                                              429

From the Past                                         519

Goatchurch                                             340

Growth of the BEC                                   349; 350; 351; 352; 353; 354

History of the BB                                     290

History of the BEC                                   3; 27; 147; 237; 293

The Rise & fall of B.E.C. membership        522

True Tales from History                            343

 


Humourous

A Season of Goodwill                               261

A tale of Two Caving Huts                         326

Alternate Glossary of Caving Terms           476

An Imaginary Tale                                    443

Annual Report of the B.B.L.H. & S.R.G.    280; 302; 314

Beer Quotes                                           494

Belfry Birds                                             61

Digging for Cheese                                  523

Excuses Reasons for not Going Caving     178

Fauna Around the Belfry                           450

Fish of Ffynnon Ddu                                 76

Funny Expressions                                  498

Ghost of Rookham Hill, The                      178

Gwyn & Hilary’s Grot Caving Menu            500

Historic Occasions                                  248

Isis                                                         470

Last Tour of Mendip                                 290

Letters to/from the Duke of Mendip            71; 72; 81; 84; 91

More Belfry Birds                                     63

Nicknames                                             504

Pandemonium on Seutra Hill                    280

Rest Assures                                          345

The Coming of the Mark III                        337

Trapped in a Chair                                   190

Weegee Goes West                                290

Words of Little Wisdom                            499

Wot I Did in mi Sumurr Holeesaz              486

 


List of Members

List of Members 1948                              10;11;12; 13; 14; 15; 16; 17; 18

List of Members 1949                              22;23; 24; 25; 26; 27; 28; 29

List of Members 1950                              34;35; 36; 37; 38; 39; 40; 42

List of Members 1956                              108

List of Members 1957                              119

List of Members 1958                              131; 132

List of Members 1959                              142

List of Members 1960                              154

List of Members 1961                              16

List of Members 1962                              178

List of Members 1963                              190

List of Members 1964                              201

List of Members 1966                              225

List of Members 1967                              236

List of Members 1968                              247

List of Members 1969                              259

List of Members 1970                              279

List of Members 1971                              289

List of Members 1972                              301

List of Members 1973                              313

List of Members 1974                              325

List of Members 1975                              336

List of Members 1976                              344

List of Members 1977                              255

List of Members 1978                              367

List of Members 1979                              379

List of Members 1980                              382; 391-392

List of Members 1981                              395-396

List of Members 1982                              406-407; 412-415

List of Members 1983                              None

List of Members 1984                              None

List of Members 1985                              431

List of Members 1986                              437

List of Members 1987                              442

List of Members 1988                              447

List of Members 1989                              452

List of Members 1990                              457

List of Members 1991                              None

List of Members 1992                              463

List of Members 1993                              467

List of Members 1994                              476

List of Members 1995                              481

List of Members 1996                              None

List of Members 1997                              491

List of Members 1998                              495; 498

List of Members 1999                              493

 


Mendip Rescue Organisation Matters

Annual MRO Report                                 28; 55; 69; 220; 361; 372-373; 384-385; 408-409; 410-411; 423; 454; 459

Fatal Accident in Wookey                        21

Longwood Tragedy                                   433

Night we Heard the Wild Goose Cry          147

Practice Rescue in Stoke Lane                 301

Practice Rescue in Goatchurch                367

Rescue in Two Caves                               157

Watch That Stal                                      294

 


Mining

Alderley Edge Copper Mines                    404-405

Bathstone Mines                                     419

Box Mines                                              364

Chalk Mine (Herts)                                   11; 12

Chilham Stone Mine                                327

Coombe Martin Mines                              130

Coniston Copper Mines                            391-392

Cuthbert’s Leadworks                              250

Dan-y-Craig Quarry                                  426

Derelict Lead Mine in Swaledale               44

Desilverisation of Mendip Lead                  111; 112

Eastwood Manor Mines                            504

Finedon Iron Stone Mines                         465

Geever Mine                                            408-409

Holly Bush Shaft, Shipham                       518

Lead Mining Methods                               348

Lynford Mines, Sandford                           517

Magpie Mine                                           39; 243

Mendip Mining                                         15; 113; 114; 117; 272; 504; 505

Mersham’s Underground Stone Quarries    422

Mines of the Harptree Area                       107; 467; 506; 510

Mine Shafts and Dangers                         249

Mine Sites on Churchill Knowle                 520

Mining a Century Ago                              421

Ochre Mines at Wets Horrington               372-373

Risca Lead Mine                                     437

Roman Mine                                           206; 214

Romano-British Lead Smelting at Priddy    70

Rookham Wood Mine Shaft                      240

Sandstone Mines in West Sussex            454

Singing River Mine                                   484

Smitham Chimney                                   301

Star Mines                                              376-377

Stock Hill Mine                                        461; 467

Tales of Chiltern Chalk Mines                   360

Tales of Talking Trees                              427

Tin Mining in Cornwall                              121; 122

Virgin Islands Copper mines                     440

 


Miscellaneous

Stereoscopic  Photography                         115; 116

Summary of the Constitution                       255

Summer 1981 in the Alps                            402-403

Supping Tups Arse in Dentdale                    492

SW Africa and Fish River Canyon                421

Swiss Cave Congress                                 472

Synthetic Ropes for Caving                         249

Tackle Story                                              304

The Final Word on F and Bloody M              511

There's This Computer                                337

This or That?                                              146

Tinkering Around Perthshire                        279

Tourists Caving Abroad, A                           416

Towards a National Council?                       219

Trappiste as Newts                                     382

Travels in Africa                                          329; 330

Travels in America                                      506; 508; 510

Travels with a Test Tube                              298; 308

Under England's Mountains Green               459

Under the Ice                                             428

Up the Creek                                             320

Victoria Falls                                             214

Vimy Ridge                                                46

Voting Methods                                          190

Wansdyke                                                 100

Warehouse, Gloucester, The                       482

Waterfall                                                    253

Webbing Knot                                            305

Weak Karabiners                                       99

Weekend in the Chilterns                            349

Welsh Rarebit                                            75

West Virginia 1988                                     445

What Happened to the Mammoth?               178

What the Well Dressed Caver Should Wear  92

What to do With Your Oldhams                   357

Whimsey in Wales                                     119

Why Not Come Caving?                              107

Why Ski in the Pyrenees                            363

Wig in Caving. The                                     522

Wildlife Countryside Act 1982                      416

William Eggy-Belch                                    523

Winter Motoring in the Alps                         80

Wookey Hole Inscriptions                           504

Yellowstone to Florida                                406-407

 


Obituaries

Bryan Ellis                                              503

Dan and Stella Hassell                             490

Dave Yeandle                                          514

Don Coase                                              121

Graham Balcombe                                   507

H.E. Balch                                              125

Jock Orr                                                 518

John Stafford                                           513

Luke Devenish                                         473

Oliver Lloyd                                             431

Robert Davies                                          467; 498

Royston Bennett                                     451

Sago and Tich                                         508

 


Poems

A B.E.C. Type Cave Report                       190

A Letter of Lamentation                             64

A Little Too Keene!                                   190

A Pressing Point                                      309

A Son of Mendip                                       481

Bats of Bristol's Belfry                               150

Beerwulf                                                   131

Bender                                                     33

Biffo                                                         401

Butcombe Blues, The                                473; 502

Cangi                                                       122

Castle on the Hill                                      317

Caver, O Caver                                         163

Caving Formulae                                       230

Chaucer's Prologue                                   214

County Councils                                       313

Diving                                                      14

Down Swildons Hole                                 473

Dreadful Ditties                                         508

Dry Humour                                              38

Experimentation                                       125

Exploring Bravely Underground                   5

Gazzum's Brain Child                                90

Gentle Dizzie                                           41

Hill in Bat                                                 477

Hut Wardens Report 1994-95                     480

Immortal Statement, The                           67

In Olden Days                                          52

Irish Easter                                              419

Janet's Last Monroe                                  496

Memoirs of Mendip in the Forties               517

Motorbikes                                               19

Mystery, The                                            5

Nigel's Dirty Weekend                               456

O for a Skylark                                         64

Ode to a Digging Bat                                 46

On the Bog                                              329

Our Belfry on the Hill                                 4

Poem                                                      5; 146

Poem by William Browne (1590)                13

Poet's Corner                                           115

Pome                                                      44

Practice Rescue in St. Cuthbert's 1981       404-405

Pre Speleode                                           7

Priddy Green Song, The                            499

Rubaiyat of Omar 'Obbs, The                     119

Ruthless Rhymes for Callous Cavers          65

Saint Cuthbert and the Yorkies                  454

Shepton Mallet Caving Club                       118

Snaffle-plate Sonnet                                  35

Some People                                           71

Sonnets                                                   94; 131; 132; 133; 134; 136; 137

Speleode by Snab                                    462

Tale of the Wessex Cattle Grid                  416

Thoughts of a Claustrophobic Mum             181

Thoughts of Chairman Sid, The                  237

Triple Trouble in the Double Troubles          390

Waldegrave Swallet                                   509

Weathers                                                 42

Whatever is Worth Doing with Worthwords  395-396

Who?                                                      154

Words of Little Wisdom                             499

Wot No Cookies                                       462

You Have Had Your Wordsworth                66

 


Review Of Books

1967 Expedition to the Gouffre Berger            247

About Caves                                                261

British Caving                                               80

Cave Surveying                                             226

Caves and Cave Diving                                  113

Caves and Caving                                         241

Caves and Tunnels in SE England                  471

Caves of Mendip, The                                    114

Caves of NW Clare                                       255

Caves of South Wales                                   372-373

Caves of the Great Hunters, The                    119

Caves of Wales and the Marches                   238

Caving and Potholing                                    401

Caving Clubs of Mendip, The                          119

Darkness Under the Earth                             82

Death of an Owl                                            167

Doolin - St. Catherine's Caves                        214

Four Hundred Centuries of Cave Art                74

Great Storm and Floods of 1968, The             279

International Expedition to the Goufre Berger   119

Kent and East Sussex Underground               471

Limestone and Caves of NW England             316

Mendip Karts Hydrology Research Project      239

Mendip Underground                                     440

My Caves by Casteret                                   10

Northern Caves Vol. 5                                   358

One Thousand Metres Down                          119

Paeolithic Cave Art                                       261

Penguin Parade                                            33

Pennine Underground                                    7

Pioneer Under the Mendips                           262

Plume of Smoke, The                                   62

Potholing Under the Northern Pennines          198

Quarrying in Somerset                                  293

Rivers of London                                           192

Shropshire Mining Annual and Year Book       242

Speleological Yearbook & Diary, The              202

SWETC Expedition to Norway                       355

Underground Adventure                                 59; 164

Vertical Caving                                             378

Volcanoes in History                                     197

Walks in Limestone Country                          290

 


Songs

A Carbide Lamp Totally Failed                  77

A Local Bloke from Rodney Stoke             164

A Winter's Tale                                        503

Amalgamation Song, The                         498

At Our Belfry on the Hill                           501

BEC Song, The                                       150; 494; 495

BEC Thrutching Song, The                       76

Belfry Benaviora                                      8

Belfry Boy, The                                       358; 481

Beneath the Boozer                                 518

Bottom that Hole                                     485

Boulder Have a Crunch on Me                   498

Bowery Corner Song                                448

Boys of the Hill, The                                471; 518

Complete Caver, The                                461

Diggers Song, The                                   305; 410-411; 499

Diving                                                     14

Droves of Priddy, The                               469

Exploration Club Song, The                      493

Golden Jubilee of the BEC                        432

Goon's 40 Years                                      501

Heeland Cavers                                       500

If it's Caving you will Go                            68

John Riley                                               87

Mountaineer's Duet, the                           76

My Mate He is a Caver                             470

Novice Rap, The                                      472

Ode to a Beeza                                       12

Ode to Black Betty                                  500

Ode to Vince on his Geburstag                 500

Song of a Speleo-biologist                        18

Song of the CCPS                                   104; 471

Steigl                                                     474; 475

Tankard Hole Song                                  497

There is a Tavern in the Town                    99

We are the Exploration Club                     273

Wee Caver Wha' Carn Fae Fife, The          500

Wessex Cave Club Hymn                         496

Young Mendip Caver, The                         358; 508

 

BB544-cover1

Castleguard, Canadian Rockies, Banff National Park by Matt Tuck 2012 


Editorial

This issue a little thin again, using all the material that has been submitted to date.

This is issue is my last one of the year, however, there will be a special report published before the AGM hopefully. That report is Roger Stenners set of papers and descriptive material of cave chemistry. This is work he started in 1970, and is only now being completed. You should find it absorbing, especially if you have chemistry knowledge.

Most of this issue is reporting on Mendip digs, plus a retrospective on Buckett Tilbury, and some interesting material and photo's from Kangy. I had hoped for some material on foreign expeditions; perhaps that will be the job of the new editor to chase up.

It has been an interesting experience, and thank you all for submitting your valuable work.


Andrew (Mo) Marriot

Ed's note: You are probably aware that Mo Marriot passed away earlier this year. There has been no obituary forthcoming, however, Kangy has submitted this photograph of him:

BB544-Marriot

 


Caine Hill May 2011 to January 2012

By Stu Lindsay

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With the Mendip Migration now behind us for 2011 , May 4th  saw Paul, Phil, Dave and Stu haul 70 bags up to Son of a Pitch while Trevor drilled holes in the End of Dig, The same team a week later was rather disappointed when the bang was called off. So Paul and Dave descended into the bowels to clear rock, whilst the rest got 82 bags to the surface. NigelTnT presented himself with the makings on the afternoon of the 15th. 14 lengths of cord were pre cut and Trev and Stu proceeded to the 2 dig faces. 2 pleasing booms, the rift one much louder, and a 30 min session of CHAPS, will hopefully provide plenty of work  for the next descent. Third week, 18th May, on the trot for the same team plus John, (available 1 week in 3) who joined Paul and Phil to sort out End of Dig debris. Trevor Dave and Stu hauled from First chamber to Son of a Pitch. With the year flying by,  25th saw Stu an hour or so early improving the End of Dig with caps. The End of Dig still follows the dip, about 20 degrees,  with a nicely water worn floor and the usual infil floor to ceiling which we get on any passage with a downward trend, horizontal has an air space above. Numerous swirl pockets dot progress, these pockets in the floors,walls and the roof are probably all that remains of isolated washed out mineral deposits. The usual evenings work was hauling by Trev and Stu whilst Paul and Phil dug the debris created earlier.

BB544-caines2Jake made his first visit for quite a while, June 1st when encouraged by Stu they dug solidly adding to the 20 bags dug previously and getting all to the First chamber. There now seems to be 2 ways forward, down to the left and in to the right. The right hand side is just body sized and leaves little room to dig, the “pit” to the left likewise, if not tighter….more bang!  5th of June saw DuncanB join Trev and Stu for a very energetic assault on the rock shelf. First Trev was bombarded with shrapnel as he dug below, then Stu had the odd kilo size lump land on him as he lay sideways underneath drilling the next shot holes. 12TH  June,  JakeB TrevH and Stu on a horribly wet and windy day cleared the rift, and the upper reaches were quite wet, usually May to October THE CAVE IS DRY !

15th June in accompaniment with NigelTnT Stu, along with Trev  set up the End of Dig with 5 length’s of 40g, even though plugged the holes were found to be filled with water…self tamping! Paul and Phil spent the evening filling bags at SoaP and getting 6 out. A very pleasing booooom !

Again on the 15th Stu just managed to persuade JakeB  to do a stint, his reluctance was due to a 15mile run the day before. The 2 hour session did manage to bag up most of the debris and left some choice exposed areas to be attacked by the crowbar next visit on the 22nd by Trev and Dave. On the 29th Trevor on his 212th visit, Stu on his 202nd   with a very pleasant evening saw Paul and Dave complete the  team and haul out 112 bags.

7th July saw a visit by PeteH, joining Trev and Stu the evening combined hole drilling and getting bags to Son of a Pitch. The central part of the End of Dig now needs to be modified as the Pit is proving difficult to negotiate! The roof solution hole seems to go in and drop, this would put it behind the central area! Being up to 30cms across, this tube is horizontal whilst the lower water worn floor is dipping and spreading out slightly to the pit and the right handside.13TH and Stu, drilling shot holes was joined by Jake after a couple of hours. Trev did likewise in the rift and when holes completed went into hauling mode. The grand finale was when Stu sent up a couple of “rockery stones”..circa 30kgs. 19TH  with little to do,  all the usual suspects totalling 6 turned up, so hauled the 2 big ones out then cleared the cave with 49 bags to the surface. The following evening saw NigelTnT join Trev and Stu now both newly licenced,  bang both ends with pleasing crumps, Lucy, Tim’s daughter doing the honours with her finger on the button.

Again August was quiet TrevH, JakeB, PhilC, JohnN and StuL appearing on the 31st when Rift clearing was the order of the day.

September and holidays done and dusted, the 7th saw Jake do a good job clearing up the cave of oddments and had a tidy up on the surface whilst Trev and Stu yet again drilled the Rift and End of Dig. 14TH collected the makings for the twin bangs, Stu EOD, Trev the Rift, which in the acompanyment of Jake were duly set,  and the sweet crumps sealed yet another successful venture. 4 days later Trev and Stu found the entrance to have a faint smell of the fumes, rewinding the firing wire they didn’t seem to get worse as we descended, in End of Dig the floor as expected had not reacted to well,  but the rest had done its stuff, a dozen bags and as many rocks the reward so far. The pit is bigger but not digger sized! However if the way on was clear it would be big enough even for me to progress. An early start on the 21st before being joined by Trevor saw capping the floor demoralising, like the bridge now some 6/7 metres back,  it just absorbs the shock or the hole finishes in mud or soft calcite/mineral. In the meantime Trev had cleared a lot of his bang debris and also had stuff still in situ that would need more effort, maybe next time more than just cord.. Trev did a solo on the 25th and the planned bang on the 28th was postponed so Jake Trev and StuL had a hauling session.

5th of October saw Ivan Elliot make his first visit, and was put to good use by helping Trev and Jake clear all the bags from the rift to First Chamber whilst Stu drilled holes in EOD. Using perinite for a change  the 9th saw Trev, Stu and a rather “nervous” Ivan fill the holes at EOD before Trev departed to do the rift whilst Stu finished off the EOD. C H A P S was employed for an hour on the 11th (first time the cave had NG fumes residing  for so long). The next day  would see a safe environment for JohnN, Trev, StuL and Ivan to clear the debris but instead they decided to   haul 64 loads out to the surface. The 19th was a disaster with Trev being late went to Lockes, so Trev went down and cleared EOD…..Bad news on the 26th Tim the landowner had been the victim of a heart attack, but was reported to be OK. Ivan and Jake did the rift whilst Trev and Stu assessed the EOD, looking grim, way on seems to have fizzled to a number of small tubes so will drill it and hit it hard with a couple sticks of Perinite, if this doesn’t open it up then the likihood is The Rift will once again be our main target..

Start of November saw JohN drilling a couple of the shot holes in E O D along with StuL, 6 in total should sort out the annoying little tubes one way or the other, Meanwhile Trev pulled down a lot of loose rock before his drilling concluded the session. The 13th was Stu and Ivan at EOD, Stu filling the holes with NG based chemical persuasion. It became apparent that the slowing down of the hole priming was due to the tamping rod sharpening into a point! However, the 6 holes were duly primed. Joined by Trev, who had done a similar operation in the rift bottom, all was tidied up and the 2 wires taken to the surface where boom boom heralded a successful venture. 23RD saw PaulB attend for a rare visit and assisted the clearance of the EOD with StuL…IT LOOKS BLEAK! Mean while TrevH and Ivan E managed to sort out the rift bottom and around 50 loads from both sites found their way to First Chamber, a good night and 2 ½ hours labour! Last day of the month and JakeB clearing the rift now a real live prospect, whilst StuL tidied up the last of the debris in EOD..now looking to be a daunting prospect with micro holes seemingly the way on!!!!

3rd of December and another year almost gone. Trevor and Jake went down the rift and continued with progress whilst Stu did a capping session in a vain hope of expanding the EOD potential..a lost cause…I think so at the moment. Leaving an extremely dry cave into a real blowy night, the coldest so far was quite invigorating. 2 weeks later in the first snow of winter Trev and Stu  gave the last rights to the EOD, amazingly the sloping water worn floor just stops, minute cracks and tiny holes seemingly the only way out of the small pit. All nooks and crannies checked, maybe a couple little tubes in the middle might succumb to desperate measures …the Rift rules!

2012 ONE WAY TO GO NOW….down the rift, the small tube/s that have had periodic chemical attention,  whilst the main effort centred on the End of Dig,  is our main hope now. First thing to change with the  prospect of large amounts of debris and mud was the rift hauling system. This was done with a new rope and hauling from the bottom by Trev and Stu at top on the 4th January. In no time at all we had 34 bags up and deposited at the growing stack in First chamber.11th was a busy session, bags were moved up to base of entrance shaft, Trev pulling,  also we moved bags from first chamber to Corner, Corner to SoaP, and as a finale before Stu’s birthday bash the 2 of us,  then got out the bags at base of entrance adding  16 to the pile. Hauling on the 18th saw Trev and Stu get 45-50 up from the First chamber. Double  our number on the 25th when joined by PhilC and JohnN who stacked at the SoaP before whizzing down to do a quick recce with Trevor into the rift bottom and were notably impressed!

First day of leap year February saw temp at -4 degrees or less,  it was nice to get below ground, Trev attacked the way on whilst Stu moved 20 -25 loads back from Rift to first chamber. A short trip on the 15th tidied up all the loose ends and Trev made final  preparations for chemical persuasives in the holes he drilled on the 12th. The 29th of February and just Trev and Stu to haul a few bags from First chamber to S oa P also noted a break in the C H A P S  pipe, this type of thing could have dire consequences if we descended after a pumping session assuming C H A P S had removed al the toxins!!

Pics… by StuL…. DaveB digging hard: Shot holes drilled and plugged ready:

The aftermath: Stats: Man hours……169 approx………bags ……. 315 poor!.......... Distance gained 5metres


Two Hundred and One Years in Swildon's Hole

By Graham (Bassett) Wilton-Jones

BB544-swildons1Buckett was 70 in February.  For those of you who don’t know Buckett, he was member no. 699  (and his wife Ann no. 700).  His membership only lapsed because the BEC membership secretary never reminded him to pay his subs, that and he took up windsurfing, racing at top level in national events most weekends. But he never lost interest in caving, so when he retired this year he decided he fancied a nostalagic trip to Mendip.  Where better to go than Swildons, where he’d spent many a mud-soaked day exploring in the pre-wetsuit era.

Right: Buckett in his grots and fibre helmet; the shopping bag holds the ladder!

Having caved with Buckett since the early 70’s, I was asked to go along.  We also invited Colin Shabter (Wessex) who caved with Buckett in the 60’s, with High Wycombe scouts.  Ashford Spelaelogical Society (there’s a few of us still active), one of the oldest caving clubs in the UK, still had some bits of tackle stored in Buckett’s garage.  Years ago, when we constructed our own ladders, we had two twenty foot bits of wire for the last ladder, but there were only twelve rungs left, so we made it with 18 inch rung spacing; we were younger and fitter, and much more flexible then; this ladder would be ideal for the Swildon’s Twenty.  We could use that today, along with our “travelling line”, a length of 1960s hawser-laid nylon.  With the three of us having a combined age of 201 years, a lifeline on the Twenty seemed wise.

It was a fine April day as we walked across the fields from Upper Pitts.  The thunderstorms, which developed considerably during the day, were tracking further north, missing Mendip altogether.  We remarked on the size of the trees by the entrance: whilst the old ash tree already looks old in the 1898 photo of the entrance, we remembered the rest as mere saplings.  Now there are the beginnings of a wood! 

BB544-swildons1Buckett was intrigued by the massive rock movement underground, between the entrance and Showerbath; clearly there is a lot of change still to take place in the not too distant future.  It has become difficult to know what to touch, in case it all starts moving while you are on it, or under it; and when is the ash tree finally going to succumb to the depths?  These trees only live for about 200 years.

At the Twenty, someone had rigged the pitch in exemplary style: double belayed traverse-line of new-looking static rope leading to both pitch-head bolts; pulley and double life-line from the top bolt; shiny new ladder hung from the lower bolt.  We left our shopping bag of ancient tackle on the shelf in case it was needed, and wondered what any potential rigger might think of it.....            or whether they would even bother to put it on the pitch for us.

BB544-swildons3After the flood (of 1968, not Noah’s deluge; we are none of us quite that old) the Double Pots were scoured out to considerable depth.  We noted that, should you fall in now, you would be more likely to break a leg than get totally drenched.  In essence, Swildon’s is just the same trip that it has always been, but there are so many little, and not so little, changes, not least at the end of Swildon’s 1.

After a gentle, uneventful amble we stopped at the sump for Easter eggs, and decided that none of us was prepared for a complete soaking, so Swildon’s 2 could wait for another visit (ten years time?).  Voices came and lamp glow appeared through the air-space, then someone emerged, crawling through the sump, preceded by tackle bag.  Three more figures came through, young ladies clad in identical yellow plasticized coveralls, their faces beaming smiles; clearly all this new gear makes sumps and ducks a pleasurable experience.  Whatever next?  

We reminisced about “proper” caving gear: we used to wear whatever we could find that would not matter if it got dirty or torn, or what could be thrown away afterwards.  I recalled that my first proper caving trip, in Ogof Pen Eryr, was in old army boots and anorak, with second-hand scooter helmet and a rubber torch.  I had previously explored the caves of Dovedale in cycling plimsoles, shorts and a bicycle lamp, but that wasn’t real caving.  Today, the nearest thing of Buckett’s apparel to “caving” equipment was his coal-miner’s helmet.  He had trainers on his feet, he was wearing his carpenter’s trousers (with obligatory paint splatters), and he had a ten-quid head torch from his local builders’ merchant. 

After a brief diversion into Tratman’s Temple we were soon back at the Twenty.  Our ladder had been rigged, but was into the groove in the stal.  At least the lifeline was there, after a fashion.  Buckett was first up.  He happens to have an artificial hip, and there is less flexibility in these than in the real thing.  Perhaps 18” rung spacing is not such a good idea.  Buckett and I found the climb “challenging”; Colin maintained that it turned a pleasant little trip into one of the most dangerous he had undertaken.  I think it was a joke but maybe he was serious.

We emerged, unscathed and like happy little boys after a morning’s mischief.  On the surface we met Mrs Sparrow, who was about to take a small party underground.  We advised her against it, as it was still such a lovely day, but they all went down anyway.  Such is the lure of caves. 

Buckett will be back.

Bassett  April 2012


Toothache Pot, Longwood Valley, Mendip

By Robin Gray

Very brief History. The site was discovered by David (Tuska ) Morrison and Chris Bradshaw early in the 1980s. It was a shallow depression with some rock surrounding it. It looked like an old mine shaft. Three other sites were noted nearby. It got the name Toothache, because Tuska’s wisdom tooth was coming through.

It was originally dug by Robin Gray and Tony Atkinson with help from MNRC members and the BEC but always remained under the control of Dave Morrison. Stu Lindsay remembers well, digging through bucket loads of hazel nut shells. It had a winch in place then and diggers were plentiful. It was pleasant working in the summer sunshine.

It was dug to about 20 ft and interest waned somewhat. The MNRC went off to build their new hut, the BEC were into other digs and Robin’s mate, Nigel Mogg was away at sea. 

Permission was given to Unit2 who had a hut at the end of the valley to take over. In fact Tuska sold it to Unit 2 for a couple of pints one night in the Hunters. They dug it for a few months without making much progress and then abandoned it. Robin Gray and friends dug it occasionally until about 1989.

It was examined again in 2011 by Robin Gray and Barry Hulatt who decided it was worth another go. Permission was sought and obtained.

Access.  Access is now from above. From Black Rock Gate: The track is followed to the left of the entrance to Longwood Valley and the field fence is scaled using a portable style. This protects the farmer’s fence and also our caving suits. From just below the inner fence which is low enough to step over, a hand line is in place. This leads directly to the dig. The hand line makes getting to and from the site easier, especially in wet weather, and also restricts diggers from moving sideways where there are many interesting plants that need to be conserved. These are Blue-bells, Herb Paris, Tooth Wort, and the usual woodland species found in the valley.

The dig site is fenced with warning signs.

Progress. Progress has been downward and the shaft is now 60feet deep. There are signs of mining activity but there are also signs of natural cave formation. It would appear that the miners were following a calcite vein which can be seen in the shaft. At the bottom of the shaft, water flows away freely and a corner discloses a tantalising air space. However it would be unwise to create a wormhole just to follow the way down and it has been decided to remove the entire fill in order to progress safely and to understand what is going on. It is possible that diggers will use lifelines in case of a collapse.

Hauling systems have continuously been improved and it is hoped to have some sort of winch in place before too long. We also expect to install fixed iron ladders for the length of the shaft already excavated. Our plans to get the metal ladders to the site, have been thwarted by the weather, but once the ground up from Black Rock Gate dries up again, Martin Grass will be able to drive them up in his Land Rover. We have enough ladder to reach the current digging depth and beyond, so once in place, life will get easier, and even those who do not relish the thought of the 60ft climb on wire ladder after a half hour hike, will be able to go down.

The black space below increases weekly and its position makes the prospect of great discoveries, very exciting. Sadly we are usually only a team of three or four and could use help with work on the surface. Anyone interested in going down would be welcome but that is usually left to Robin, or Steve Pointon and Barry Hulatt from the CCC  

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The new buckets. Stu hauling.

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Looking up the shaft which is very square until the bottom is reached  


Reservoir Hole - 7th Update

By Peter Glanvill

There was mutiny shortly after the discovery of the Silo. Nick and Nigel declared that Topless Aven was the place to dig but not with the pool in place and that the roof needed bringing down into it. Have stacked what felt like tons of rubble up there I was not so keen but eventually it was ‘be it on their own heads’ hopefully not too literally. Around the same time I took some interest in the roof and wall of the passage that leads into Grand Gallery noting that the flat roof was heavily scalloped and that the true passage height was obscured by fallen slabs. Digging commenced here and has continued intermittently helped by Tony Boycott’s dynamic contributions. However it may still prove to be a deep undercut although it does emit a faint air current. I named it Gluhwein Passage as first efforts were made after our pre-Christmas mulled wine and Stollen cake banquet in the cave.

The Silo has not been abandoned.  As the roof consists of cemented boulders and lies only 20 metres below the road an attempt to go up was deemed inadvisable on several grounds so after shuttering in the remaining spoil on one side we are attempting to reach the presumed phreatic passage that should exist about 3 metres below its base. Progress is slow and we are thinking along the lines of another ‘Stanton’s drive’ to intercept said passage and avoid much excavation of mud and cobbles.

Meanwhile Nick and Nigel achieved the impossible by removing the roof in TA dig above the pool and created stable diggable passage. They have progressed another 3 or 4 metres using a combination of cement, walling and strategically placed scaffold bars to stabilise the route. They have also removed a couple of irritating constrictions in the earlier parts of the passage to enable spoil removal to proceed more smoothly. Stacking space is at a premium so Stanton type walling has been required along with the installation of a mini-winch to haul spoil up to Alison’s Alcove, a space 3 metres up the Climbing Shafts on the way to Golgotha. The current limit reached on 17th April is a point where the floor drops slightly and the roof visible through gaps seems to be clear of fill. The draught continues to tantalise.

Active diggers over the last few months were  Nick Chipchase, Nigel Cox (the pair being referred to as NC2), Peter Glanvill, Alison Moody,Tony Boycott, Rob Harper, Mike Moxon, Andrew Atkinson,  and Linda Wilson, and there have been 15-17 digging trips since the last report.

Peter Glanvill April 2012


Tale Piece

The Tale Piece is for anecdotes, people profiles, or any other interesting item that you like and, of course - tales. Ideas and suggestions are always welcome.

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RSK BSA Belfry 1950's

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Do you know where this cave is? I went again after 38 years! Photo:Phil Romford

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North  Wales 1954. The team

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North  Wales 1954. Dave Radmore. Notice nailed boots!

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Roger and Jackie Dors proudly hold the Olympic torch.

Committee Members

Secretary Faye Litherland (1331).
Treasurer Rob Harper (999)
Membership Secretary   Hels Warren (1354)
Hut Warden Phil Rowsell (1275)
Hut Engineer Stu Lindsay (930)
Caving Secretary Stuart Gardiner (1347)
Tackle Master Henry Bennett (1079)
Editor Phil Romford (985)
Floating Stuart McManus (725)

Non-Committee Posts

Librarians Tim Large & Rich Smith
Auditor Chris Smart
BEC Web Page Editors   Henry Bennett and Rich Smith
Club Archivist John “Tangent” Williams
Club Trustees Bob Cork, Martin Grass, Nigel Taylor, Mike Wilson

Castleguard, Canadian Rockies, Banff National Park by Matt Tuck 2012

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Front cover image: Robin Gray in Toothache Pot by Martin Grass

 

THE BELFRY BULLETIN

THE JOURNAL OF THE BRISTOL EXPLORATION CLUB

October 2013 Number 548 VOLUME 59 NUMBER 3

The Bristol Exploration Club. Wells Road, Priddy, nr. Wells, Somerset, BA5 3AU
01749 672 126 Website: www.bec-cave.org.uk

 


Editorial October 2013

Well, here we are with another BB. It’s a pretty full issue this time and if you are bored with reading the stuff I have written then contribute some of your own work!

I’d like to start by congratulating Stuart and Hels Gardiner on their recent marriage. I gather a fine time was had by all the wedding and I hope they enjoy New Zealand as much as we did—just hope they like the camper van company we recommended.

The AGM and dinner have now passed so I hope everybody got their subs in in time and if not this is a reminder. The AGM was fairly well attended and I would like to say that Bob Cork did a superb job of chairing the meeting — one of the best I have ever seen. You can do it again next year Bob—if you want to.

Without going into detail it was good to hear club members airing their feelings and I hope their views will be respected in the coming year. We have a really good mix of individuals on the committee from old hands to new young bloods and they would like your support. At the end of the BB Bill Comlbey kicks off with a potted biography.

As you know we are an exploration club. I would dearly like more features on the digs that club members are involved with even if its only a few lines. I am thinking of Toothache, Home Close, and Halloween in particular but know of several other sites. Photos are always welcome of course. I know some people keep blogs and logs but a Journal record is quite nice for posterity.

I might as well mention the Jrat Digging award evening on 16th November this year as this BB should reach you by then. As some of you will know the venue has been switched back to the Hunters after being planned for Priddy Village Hall. One reason was the organizers were unsure how much attendance there would be this year. Having got involved in the proceedings I think this year’s format may encourage more participation and if it does then we might have a case for moving to a larger venue. The plan is to invited diggers to give a brief presentation on their particular site so that an audience can get an idea as to what is happening across the whole of Mendip. Teams that would like assistance can then also promote their dig and advertise their favoured day or evening. It should make the evening far more interesting and more in keeping with Tony’s enthusiasm for digs in general—not just his own.

This month you can learn how to get your digging spoil out, what happens in Assynt every April/May and something about the history of a well know Devon show cave amongst other things. Read on.

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Bob lays down the law
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AGM attendees—what a happy bunch


The BCA AGM Working Weekend Event and Cavers’ Party

by Ian Gregory

The weekend of 14th to 16th June 2013 saw the inaugural British Caving Association Annual General Meeting Weekend Event and Cavers Party.

“Why a Weekend Event/Party?” I hear you ask. Well, it’s simple….hardly anyone, outside of the Committee and Council ever bothers to turn up, leading in turn to allegations that British Caving is run by a “bunch of old farts” who are out of touch with the “grass roots” of our chosen activity. That sentiment may well be true, but we’re all to blame for that, because nobody turns up…..a circular argument if ever there was one.

To try to change this state of affairs, it was decided, by the BCA to make the AGM something that cavers, especially the younger generation, would actually want to attend, hence the Party Weekend. It was, though, much more than just a party, as there were also Caving Trips, Scientific Field Trips and Seminars on the programme.

Although it was a BCA event, a lot of the organizing was done by the Hidden Earth team, mostly Les and Wendy Williams (WCC), and some of the CHECC committee personnel, most notably Hellie Brooke (BEC). I was approached by Les to do the breakfast catering, with a Hog Roast on the Saturday evening.

The venue chosen to host this first attempt was the excellently equipped Rotary Centre in Castleton, Derbyshire, which boasts not only some very good bunkrooms, but also a “party room” and a well equipped kitchen and dining room…..with the all important built in Bar! Who could ask for more?

Friday was the meet and greet evening, where those attending were booked in, set up their tents or bagged a bunk, then retired to the Bar, which, as it was organized and run by Les Williams, with help from Martin Grayson (TSG) was serving Cheddar Ales Potholer (what else at a caver’s party) and Somerset Cider…..rumour had it that they were also serving soft drinks (whatever they are). Andy Eavis also provided a roast chicken supper.

Saturday morning was started with a 9 item Full English Breakfast, + toast & marmalade, and tea or coffee with a vegetarian option, at a very reasonable £4. That, I figured, would be enough to set them up for a good days caving. Following breakfast the cavers all departed to whatever trip or lecture that they had booked, and us “staff” were able to get a few hours rest, before the evening’s frivolities commenced.

Saturday evening was taken up with a Hog Roast and a Stomp. The Hog Roast, courtesy of Andy Eavis, was cooked by Henry Rockliffe, and the Stomp with a very good live Rock Band, was followed by a Disco supplied by Basher and Martel Baines from the BPC…..oh, and large amounts of beer.

According to Les, “If there ain’t no pictures, then it never happened!”, so, he was not chased around the site, cornered in the bar and disrobed by a dozen or so half naked young ladies….

Sunday started again with a damn good fry up, and then the serious business of the A.G.M. and Council meeting commenced. Due to the amount of cleaning and tidying in the kitchens I was unable to attend the meetings, however some of the other Belfyites present did, and a few of them were even appointed (conned?) into taking various positions. These individuals were Ben Heaney, who now holds the post of BCA Newsletter Editor, and Ruth Allen who is now an Individual Rep. on the council, whilst Chris Jewell continues in the post of Media Liaison Officer, and Dave Cooke heads up the I.T. Working Group.

As this was the first event of it’s type, a lot of lessons were learned by the organizers, and, though it wasn’t perfect first time round, the input from some of us, such as Les and Wendy, Hellie and myself, having been involved in the running of Hidden Earth and CHECC, certainly helped it to run a lot better than it might have, as a lot of the common mistakes and pitfalls had already been met and overcome by us before.The

Lecture and Field Trip Programm e for Saturday 15 th June 2013

  • The Hydrology of Speedwell Cavern, led by Nigel Ball.
  • Introduction to Cave Ecology, led by Dr. Paul Wood.
  • Introduction to Cave Archaeology, led by Prof. Andrew Chamberlain,
  • Introduction to Limestone Hydrology and Geomorphology, led by Dr. Paul Hardwick,
  • The Castleton Springs, led by Prof. John Gunn,

And, in addition to these, the British Caving Library also held an Open Day, and the day was finished off with a Slideshow and Presentation on the year’s Major Overseas Expeditions.

There are plans to continue this event in the future, and, whilst, at the time of writing this, nothing definite has been confirmed, there is the intention to hold next years (2014) at the Dalesbridge Centre in Yorkshire, and, as it can only get better, I would urge you all to consider attending.

 


How to move your spoil

By Stu Lindsay

The bags

Usually plastic, they come from a number of sources and the quality varies a lot. Good old fashioned fertilizer or animal feed bags are amongst the strongest but not always the easiest to empty. Yes, some bags do need to be emptied as cave digs do not always have masses of free space where they can be stored and, more importantly, hidden. Hand in hand with the plastic bag often goes the strop, a mini 60cms loop sling; this gives an easy grip for dragging, pulling about or hauling up pitches. It hooks straight on and most importantly it keeps the spoil contained. Used in conjunction with a drag tray they can make spoil removal much easier. In the past few years the plastic “hessian weave” type bag has become available as the more we drink the more the brewery’s use! They are easier to empty being less rigid and do not tend to grip muddy spoil with a near perfect vacuum-like resistance, as do fertilizer bags. They are also relatively safe moving boulders; we have done rocks to 40kgs in a well stropped bag…and one of over 50kgs in a double bag!

The drag tray

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There is a vast array of “models” in this category and they are mostly modified plastic drums of 25 to 40 litre capacity. The drag tray is a simple thing; you can get 2 from each drum. You cut it in half from top to bottom; each drum can yield slightly different trays if you cut it off centre. Using the handle as a guide you cut it so that the whole handle stays on one section; this gives a deeper tray and something to grab hold of if you need it to be tipped. The thinner section is great if you are merely using it to drag bags between points that are reasonably flat and in a straight passage, or up slopes. The most important thing with a drag tray is not to fall into the trap of “great, a nice convenient handle to tie the rope to” and then suffer with awkward moments if the tray is unstable or travels badly. Why should you avoid tying to the handle? Because you will find the pull is often above the centre of gravity. In all trays I have made the drag rope attachment points are as low as possible, wide apart and the leading/ pulling end always rein forced, using a sturdy thick rope with a thinner one on the return side if you

wish.

The kibble (bucket, skip)

BB548 003Again there are loads of models; the primary source is the 25—40 litre plastic drum. Preference and construction is usually down to the hands of the maker and the conditions in the dig. Most kibbles will operate in most digs, but for that awkward or odd point in the digging chain you can usually make something to suit.

Example 1: In Cainehill we have a rift 8m deep which is narrow and stuff needs to be got up it. Rocks in a bag would last no time at all so a simple solution was to cut the handle section from the top of a drum, attach an old bit of seat belt around it, reinforce the plastic one side and the webbing on the other with washers and use rivets to hold it in place down the sides and on the bottom. A maillon or old krab then joins 2 end loops together at the top and a sturdy flexible rock hauling vessel that is easily tippable in a cramped space is the result.

Example 2: Cut the bottom from a 25 litre drum then using 1” wide tape wrap around the handle twice, keeping the tape centrally placed, 2 equal lengths then go up the side, melt 2 slits (stronger than cutting) in each side above halfway and feed tape in and out, tie loops on the ends to affix a permanent maillon and you have a flexible kibble with a handle on the bottom for easier tipping. As in all instances a piece of chain tied to the handle also helps in muddy conditions.

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Example 3 & 4: A 25 litre drum holds probably more than 25kgs of solid stuff; that would be especially true if it was mud, and more so very wet mud. The metal framed kibble is useful in a variety of aspects; the frame of the kibble can be used as an integral lifting and tipping part. The metal frame is constructed around the top of the cut off drum using fairly wide metal, 20mm then 1 or 2 bands are affixed to this going down around the bottom then back up, these can be narrower metal, 10mm. The handle is fixed to the wider rim, it can be central or offset by an inch or so; offsets can make for easier tipping by hand or from a fixed rig. The handle framework also means there is a firm point for attaching to guide wires etc.

Notes

These metal framed kibble type buckets do not like to be bashed on the top edge, especially when moving claggy clay as the clay takes the shape of the bucket, the bucket is bashed more and more to get it to come out, the shape of the top changes with more banging, the clay is rather stubborn, preferring to stay as a squarer lump in the bottom and refusing to pass the modified exit.

True of most kibbles, when digging claggy clay a half sized kibble avoids overfilling, reduces weight and provides fewer surfaces to stick to. For rocky, dryish spoil or gravel use a three quarter drum. Handles to attach can be made from solid metal, rope, tape or chain. Always cut off the bottom as the top becomes a ready made handle on the bottom for tipping!

The rock kibble (varying sizes)

Used in Assynt and manufactured by those famous SUSS engineers (F & B) is the rock kibble, cut from the bottom of a round barrel, 40 – 200 litres depending on your fancy. It has four sturdy attachment points for chains. These are basically 2 flat metal bars (2” wide) which go at 90 degrees to each other under the bowl and are bolted into place; the chains come together at a maillon for a permanent attachment point, and are long enough to get a rock in and out when spread. They should easily be able to handle 60+kg rocks hauled to the surface up a pitch! The rocks are merely rolled in and rolled out! 80kg can be no problem.

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The enclosed kibble or cut away kibble

BB548 008An awkward looking bit of kit, this is usually attached by the existing handle. These are useful if there is a pull along a bit of flat passage with a section of vertical lifting ; depending on the spoil type they can prove difficult to tip as the cut out hole tends to govern the mass of the contents. The less viscous the spoil (slurry!) then the bigger the volume can be. If A is a 1/3rd of the kibbles depth the hole to extract or tip the contents from the loaded end by way of tipping and shaking is by virtue of the open diagonal, d to e, allowing just more than a 1/3rd of the volume to be tipped easiest. The load, clay or similar, in the bottom section below B should therefore be no more than 1/3rd of the kibble volume. A mistake often made is to fill them to the top, line A, with fairly thick claggy spoil that binds together, shaking causing it to lump up even more, so its true, little but often works best. Wet slurry type spoil, when being pulled flat can be filled to the point of over flowing, as when raised it should be below line A.

To make one simply catch hold of the handle, cut away the top corners/edge of one side, attach a strop or something similar to aid attaching to a krab or maillon, add a rope or bit of chain to the bottom and hey presto a few seconds later and you have a kibble. The main disadvantage is by using the handle for lifting there is a higher centre of gravity when dragging, resulting in stability being a negative point, but usually containers are “oblong” with the handle favouring the cut.

In the late 1970’s a converted beer barrel was commissioned to extract spoil at 50kg a time from Wigmore Swallet. Like all good plans it had to evolve. The second part of the plan was hatched as we went along on that first day; an aerial ropeway with 2 perfectly placed trees and masses of space for spoil. It just had to be! The concept was simple, as was the offsetting of the centre of gravity horizontally and vertically of the barrel and the krab release so it would tip itself. The barrel part worked excellently but getting it to the tipping point was a completely different story…another day perhaps.

Operation was simplicity itself a krab on the handle slipped over a fixed pillar on one side of the barrel. When lifted the barrel tipped upside down; the hardest part on the tip operator’s part was swinging the empty barrel back up and putting the krab back in place.
BB548 009    BB548 011
It is not all about the receptacle in removing your spoil and performing a relatively simple lift up a vertical shaft. Inclined areas coupled with rough floors in a relatively cramped passage or crossing a void often needs a bit of thought. With the Tyrolean or zip wire in the armoury we can see that pretty much all aspects of spoil removal in most situations can be sorted using vessels, pulleys, (ropes) wires, poles, guides, maillons, krabs and anchors. Always start with KISS and if it doesn’t work then build up on it.

Providing there is something solid to attach to at both ends using a zip wire (preferred) or rope can be a godsend. The best operation is of course with a down hill slant, but providing the passage is straight a rope on either end of the vessel will work. Materials needed are a couple of anchor bolts, the spoil vessel, old rope for pulling to and fro and a maillon or krab or two. For a simple short term operation an old maillon sliding on the wire should suffice. For longer term use or maybe heavier loads a bogey as in Diagram 7 would be beneficial.

However, from the outset simple might be how you build a 3 wheel rig. It is basically 2 modified triangles of metal to form cheeks, 2 pulley wheels affixed to top 2 corners, a third lower and centrally positioned and 3 hanging points on the “sharper” end with spacers in the middle for rigidity and /or draw ropes or load points as necessary. The above system can go up/down quite steep slopes, across voids indeed anywhere where the vessel is mostly clear of the floor. Diagram 7 shows the bogey used in Locke’s Hole where the entrance shaft is near vertical but has many protrusions, especially the steps! I managed to get a guide that worked perfectly on the 3rd attempt. First task in setting up is to
get a piece of string attached to the centre of a head frame/ top anchor point then find a suitable line to a robust sturdy lower anchor point.

BB548 012Locke’s problem was that a mere guide did not suit as the weight of the load needed to be “suspended” on the wire, and opposing forces (pull, hang and sideways motion) seemed to negate the effort and readily wore through steel krabs/maillons, My offering for lifts greater than about 20 degrees from vertical must be the three wheeled bogey / pulley with attaching points to allow for 25+ kgs going up, and a free running zero load, or controlled 40+ kgs down. It works and I offer no technical info on how or why it does such a good job, whereas its immediate similar predecessors didn’t; it’s like most digging i.e. “suck it and see”.

In construction there must be adequate solid points to keep the plates apart and allow the wheels to revolve. In diagram 7 (the top plate is removed for clarity) there are 3 fixed points, good for attaching krabs and it is set up for pulling up a 20+ degree incline, if used more horizontally then the load could be put on the spare rigid fixing point.

In a vertical scenario, maybe a shaft with a reasonable dog leg and protrusion, a zip wire or guide wire may be needed to guide rather than support a vessel which should always hang vertically. The simplest guide is a krab/maillon between kibble and wire/ rope, great if minimum load is put directly on to it, but metal against metal (or rope) doesn’t last long. A guide wire will probably work without too much friction up to about 10 degrees.

Rigid rails

These can be in exceptional cases mono but are mostly double, and fixed to the floor, possibly turning gentle corners and able to tackle inclines and varying distances. If a long term project over a long hauling distance is planned then the time and labour may be well spent. We all know how a railway line works so that covers floor mounted aspects of rigid rail, so how about suspended ones:-

The short rail, attached at both ends above ground with its length dependant on the amount of sag that can be tolerated, has a block, usually like the triangular offering in diagram 7 but with a much larger wheel(s) ( 7-10 cms dia. and maybe 3-5 cms wide) with the end to end movement probably no more than 9-10 metres, supporting about 25 - 40 kgs.

In construction there are a couple of options; the block may have 1 or 2 running wheels, the equilibrium being based on the hanging load keeping the block up straight. Attaching a kibble or bag to the load point and walking it to the other end along a rail of 2” scaffold or similar pole is the simplest way as it allows for moving larger weights. Whilst 20kgs is fairly comfortable for most diggers to lug around, this rail could allow for loads of 35-40kg. If incorporated with a simple human influenced lift from the dig haul line onto the mono rail, and a method of semi automatically tipping at the other end, you get more load for less energy.

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This idea derives from the system in use in Assynt (see photos)

The 2 highlighted areas show a pulley with single wheel, and the end stop which the kibble hits and is displaced from the transporting hook under the pulley wheel by the impact so that through the wonders of science it lands upside down in the wheel barrow. A handle on the bottom is used to pick up the kibble which has usually disposed of its contents. The rig shown, with 7 people on site and about 5 hours working, raised 280 kibbles, each weighing close to 30 kgs…that’s over 1500 kgs an hour.

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Above Close up of pulley and tipping bar

BB548 028 

The author in action in Assynt
The BEC has been blessed with the rat haus a gift from Matt Clarke; what Jrat always wanted! It has a really sturdy bench, a massive vice, a grinding wheel, and will welcome any useable old tools! You can make your own stuff, so then there is no reason not to have the tools to go digging. How’s the song go…Oh yes, “We are the Exploration Club we………………………”


Reservoir Hole 13th update

by Peter Glanvill

Things have gone a bit quiet in the cave for the time being with few working trips being made during August and September owing to the absence of Nick (Old Ruminator) Chipchase. However a fair number of tourists have been in, marvelled, taken photos and gone away. We keep a log in the chamber of all visitors.

The Silo and Jill’s Slither have remained unvisited apart from spoil clearance from the Silo dig back to Grand Gallery with some re excavation of the approaches. Contrary to what some individuals might think we are not averse to offers of help. Some of the core team are retired and chose to dig in the day time simply because they live more than an hour’s drive from the hill. However the Silo would make an ideal evening dig for a small team of 3 or 4 and is only 20 minutes caving from the entrance. If any leaders from the club are interested they should make themselves known to Martin Grass. I know Estelle seemed quite positive and Henry Dawson was keen at one stage. The Silo has had the blessing of Mendip’s own cave geomorphologist Andy Farrant so there is everything to play for.

In the Frozen Deep Nick and Nigel have methodically worked round the walls spraying ‘smoke’ from a canister of Magican (available from Maplins). This pleasantly scented mist is cool so neutral in a draught and is ideal for detecting draughts. They found that there was really only one place where the draught was highly apparent and this was some way to the east of the entrance of Pickwick Passage on the southern wall. A dig (Magic Smoke Dig) was there fore started between the boulders and the wall, conveniently right beside the taped path. It has so far dropped 3 metres to a mud floor and a cool draught blows down the diggers necks. Unfortunately the floor currently consists of fine silt so we suspect some zig zagging downwards will be required to reach the cave that must exist below and beyond.

Skyfall may also receive attention at some stage. It draughts well but there are issues with digging upwards!


Mailbag

I have now received 2 letters (emails actually but any communication with the editor will do). Here they are:

From Vince Simmonds

Peter,

Having read the latest BB I am more than a little pi**** off that you take it on yourself to suggest that we might need assis tance at Hallowe'en Rift. Let me make it clear that, if and when we require any help then we will ask for it ourselves, until then we are more than happy to continue with the team we have. I don't recall that we have interfered with your teams antics at Reservoir Hole, and have the decency to spell my name correctly!

Vince Simmonds

(For those who read the last BB it’s clearly not worth contacting the Halloween diggers! The latest Reservoir update deals wi th
Vince’s second comment. Sorry about the typo, Vince, you lost a ‘d’ and I usually gain an ‘e’! I have also discussed these
issues with Vince more recently - Ed. )

From Liz Jeanmaire

Picture on last page is Wooding, Dave Savage, Martin Grass, Fish & I don't know the 5th person.

It was in the marquee put up inside the Mill at Wookey hole for the Anniversary dinner in I can't remember what year late
1990s, perhaps? and I can't get at stuff to look it up because of the builders.

Liz
(She is absolutely right—its 1996 and if anybody knows the name of the fifth man perhaps they can tell me—Ed.)


A History of Kents Cavern

Part 1: 19TH Century Visitors and Guides

By Pete Rose

Following early visits to Kent’s Cavern in the late 18th century by John Swete, Richard Polwhele and William Maton the visits by J. Feltham in 1803 and W. Hyett (1805) appeared in print (1): “Having augmented our guides we entered the chafin, with each a candle and cautiously proceeded, after a short descent it opened out into a fort of a hall.” This trip describes the rescue of a party of naval officers who had entered with portfires (slow burning fuses) and one candle which went out!

In 1812 ‘A description of Kent’s Hole’ (2) stated: “A curious cavern amongst the rock to the east of Teignmouth. It is situated at the bottom of a rock and has 2 entrances. The largest and left entrance is about 4 feet high and continuing 12 feet, terminates in a chamber, with a descent leading into other vaults, sometimes the passage being only high enough for a person to creep along, suddenly leading into an apartment spacious enough to contain a hundred persons.There are 5 of these, but the largest is at the end of an entrance two hundred feet along, which barely admits a person going through. This is called the Oven, and here we meet with a lake of water which prevents further progress……. It is necessary that everyone who visits should take a light to prevent accidents by foul air etc. Attempts have been made to work the bones and spars, but they do not prove ornamental!”

In 1818 E. Croydon published ‘A Guide to the watering places on the coast between the Exe and the Dart’ (3). The land under which Kent’s is situated was owned by Sir Lawrence Palk (The Haldon Estate): “The approach to this awful retreat is by a path which winds through a thicket. The entrance, which is situated to the south, is through a narrow passage, in some parts not 5 feet in height. The passage gradually widens as you proceed, and takes a north easterly direction till you are introduced into a spacious hall.” Torches were used to light this trip, but there is no mention of a guide.

The first name connected with Kent’s Cavern in modern times is that of Thomas Northmore (4) of Cleve, near Exeter, who sought to establish that Mithras had been worshipped in early times in British caverns.

He entered the cave on Sept 21st 1824, with the dual objective of verifying his own theory and of discovering organic remains. With two assistants, Ferris and Rossiter, together with a draughtsman Gendall (sketches for the engravings) entered the cavern. “There were no bars, locks or bolts on the cave”. He declared that he was ‘‘successful in both objects’’ (5) but his theory was disproved quickly His interest caused him to write to Dean Buckland, who had been exploring caverns in Yorkshire. The latter urged him to proceed with his investigations, which he carried out with Sir W.C. Trevelyan.

Northmore was accompanied in his researches by Dr Greville, Capt. Sartorius, Mr Scudamore, Mr Barker, Mr Henderson, Dr Matthews, Rev Mr Daniel and Mr Edward Cary, Prof. of Oxford.

In 1825 he was accompanied by a party including John MacEnery, a priest. He had archaeological tastes and resolved to commence researches which would shed light on man’s early history. He was inspired by Dr. Buckland’s book ’Reliquaie Diluvianae’(6) which had appeared in 1823 with .the current theory of the deluge or a great flood, depositing bones into caves.

“Captain Welby , the coast guard , with Mr Northmore, and MacEnery entered in files , each bearing a light in one hand and a pick-axe in the other headed by a guide carrying a lantern before the chief of the party. Assembling in the vestibule Mr Northmore ascended a rock from which he issued instructions. He then distributed the guard through the chambers. The party were consoled by the discovery in the black mould of oak pieces and finally some teeth. 5 species on Mr Trevelyan’s plate were supplemented by deer, hare, rabbit, cat, birds, and an upper jaw of a hyena!’’ (24),Buckland visited in 1825 and was struck with the discoveries.

MacEnery found, below the recent deposits and a thick sheet of stalagmite, the bones and teeth of extinct animals and non native ones, together with flint implements of early man. This proved an antiquity of deposition over long periods of time, rather than just in a flood. When John MacEnery submitted his report to the British Association he was greeted with disbelief and ridicule, for few scientists then believed these flints to be genuine products of primitive man.

In 1829 in searching the surface mould(23) MacEnery turned over a stone and discovered pieces of pottery, charcoal ,human teeth ,flint relics, spear heads, copper, tin mouldings etc., and, near the entrance, human bones. Near the same spot a few days later a cranium and bones of another body were found plus mammoth, rhino, horse, ox, deer, wolf, fox, hyena, and reindeer remains. Further excavations were carried out over a period of about 15 years, but the results were meagre and misunderstood.

The ‘Panorama of Torquay’(1832) by Octavian Blewitt was quite controversial “The labours of the Rev .J.M. MacEnery have enabled him to form a cabinet of great value, and to enrich with the fossil treasures of Torquay the institutions of Plymouth , Bristol and other provincial towns and the splendid Museum of the Geological Society. But while hundreds have engaged in these investigation it is curious that few Geological works have condescended to notice the Torquay cave, although much space has been given to others, both foreign and British of far inferior interest.We have great pleasure in introducing two letters by Thos. Northmore.’’ (Pp110-138) (7)

He states that: “the guides were J.Heggery, mineralist on the quay, and Geo. Pearce at Tor to whom the keys are entrusted. Permission to dig is from Sir L.V. Palk”. The entrance is shown in an engraving.

BB548 027

South entrance 1848
BB548 019
North Entrance 1841

This north entrance was in general use from 1824 to 1865. There were 5 entrances the triangular entrance (north),the arched entrance(south),the first low level entrance, the second low level entrance and the oven entrance . Only the above two are now open,and 50 feet apart in the face of the same cliff. The other entrances were blocked to keep out stray animals. MacEnery used the north entrance which opened into the vestibule.

In 1840 Godwin Austen read a paper on ‘The bone caves of Devonshire’ before the Geological Society describing his own investigations.

Croydon’s Guide (henceforth referred to as Croydon) 1841(25) noted that George Pearce of Tor, Torquay dealt with applications for visits.

In 1841 ‘The Guide to Torquay’ by Cockrem and Elliott (9) has a new engraving of the North Entrance. “The entrance is now closed in order to prevent persons from carrying off the bones for sale, or incautiously losing themselves in the cave. It is more than probable that the skeleton which was found there had taken refuge in the cave and had been unable to retrace her steps!”

“When the fleet was stationed in Torbay during the late war, two midshipmen ventured to explore the cavern without a guide, and having extinguished their lights were so completely lost in its intricate windings that it was not until they had been missed and search made for them that they were discovered on the following day, by the tenant of Ilsam Farm .They were seated in the far recesses, without hope of making their escape. Determined to show his gratitude, and to terminate their adventure in the true spirit of romance, one of them resolved upon marrying the daughter of their deliverer and actually maintained a correspondence with her family for nearly 10 years, when all tidings of him suddenly ceased”

BB548 036

Tor Churchyard

“The only guide who is now trusted with the key is George Pearce, of Tor, who will provide lights and everything necessary for visiting the interior.

Permission to dig for bones can only be obtained from Sir L.V. Palk, who is naturally averse to giving leave, except for scientific purposes. The extent of the cavern is estimated at three quarters of a mile. The effect on the stalagmites by lighting with blue lights is very striking. The other entrance, higher in the wood, which appears larger, is now nearly filled with earth.’’
MacEnery died in 1841.His gravestone is in the Tor Churchyard (poorly maintained). His work resulted in the foundation of the Torquay Natural History Society in 1844, and this Society, in 1846, appointed a committee to obtain specimens for their new museum.

BB548 037
Rev. J. MacEnery

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Cavern Researches 1859
Vivian, W. Pengelly, Dr. Battersby and others undertook exploration of the cavern. Their results were embodied in a paper read to the Geological Society. These new ideas of ‘antiquity of man and beast’ were contra to the idea of a great deluge or flood, bringing into caves all those bones. This was incompatible with the story of creation as told in the Book of Genesis. In fact in the ‘Caves of South Devon’ by Howard (8), post 1879, Mr Howard was still arguing for the deluge.

In the 1848 Croydon (10) it is stated: “the entrance is closed. Apply to George Pearce of Tor for the keys, lights and a guide. Persons not allowed to dig for bones unless they have permission from Sir Lawrence Palk” (born1766).

The Palk family owned much of Torquay, and the old manor house was pulled down in 1843. Prior to 1857 Sir L.V. Palk lived abroad and returned to Haldon House .he died in 1860 and was succeeded by his son Lawrence. The 2nd Lord Haldon was L.H. born 1846 and the third was L.W, born 1869. This estate was heavily mortgaged developing Torquay and much land with the harbour sold off post 1855. The 2nd Lord Haldon died in 1903 and by 1914 the rest of Haldon property in Torquay had been sold off.

Croydon, post 1851(11) has the entrance closed by a door and: “visitors who wish to explore the interior must procure a key from John Underhay, Queen St, Pimlico, Torquay”.

By 1852 Croydon (12) has visitors procuring a key from Mr Ardley, Curator of the Museum.

The 1854 Cockrem Guide (13) states: ‘‘through the Curator of the Museum may be obtained permission to visit. It will be necessary to provide lights and a guide”, whilst in the same year Croydon (14) writes: “the entrance is closed by a door and visitors must procure a key from Mr Ardley, the Curator of the Museum in Park Lane”.

In the next Croydon, post 1854(15) visitors were procuring a key from John Underhay: “its extent throughout its windings is estimated at about ¾ of a mile. The effect, when illuminated by blue lights, is very striking”.

Meanwhile work was going on in other parts of the country, and in 1859 Darwin published his ‘Origin of Species’. Great interest was aroused, whereupon Sir L. Palk decided to revert to the larger ‘South Entrance’ (arched) which opens into the Great Chamber. Here the doorway was built, the usual entrance today now inside. John Underhay, whose name appears on the notice board, had been Sir L. Palk’s guide for many years. Philp’s Cavern was discovered in 1858 in Windmill Hill, Brixham and spurred on interest in Kent’s Cavern.

By 1864 the Cockrem Guide (16) has the cave closed. “Permission from Sir L Palk , guides and candles necessary . The cavern may be examined by applying at the Manor Office, near the Baths.”

In 1865 a committee was formed by the British Association to organise the excavations. It consisted of Sir Charles Lyell, Professor Phillips, Sir John Lubbock, John Evans, E. Vivian and William Pengelly. Nearly £2000 was spent during the next 15 years. The work was carried out under the direction of W. Pengelly. Each year a report was made and presented to the British Association (16 reports in total). Superintendents oversaw the work and kept keys. Visits to the digs by ordinary travellers were only made with workmen present.

MacEnery had previously found four distinctive deposits, with contents of charcoal, shells, ornaments, teeth of lion, bear etc and beneath these the fifth deposit was crystalline stalagmite,12 feet thick in one place(23) and the sixth layer of cave earth or breccia. The 5th deposit had only bear bones, the sixth- lion, bear, fox and man. “Man existed in Devonshire at a remote time uncalculated”.

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South Entrance in the 1860’s 

Charles Keeping, whose brother was a well known fossil collector, and George Smerdon, were hired in March1865. “Tuesday March 28th. The workmen had broken ground outside the cavern for the purpose of cutting a roadway through a talus of earth and stones, which almost closed the southern (arched) entrance, which for the present is to be the entrance used exclusively by the superintendents and the workmen the visitors and guide being confined to the northern entrance.”(27). This access was changed to the Southern Entrance (by Sir L Palk).

W. Pengelly spent 5 hours a day at the cavern, and the workmen employed were George Smerdon and John Farr. In the 6th Report to the Committee (1870) the workmen were excited! “A pound of candles (16 to the pound) were hung in their usual places. By 3’o clock 12 were missing, cutting marks rather than a gnawing of the wicks was noticed (rats were a problem). Before they left all the candles had disappeared!”

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William Pengelly

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South Entrance 1869t5 1925

The whole of the cavern was divided into cubic yards (3x1x1feet). To each cubic yard a box was devoted, and all the finds placed within. There were 4000 by Dec. 1866 and 7340 by 1880! Thus a scientific analysis of the cavern was carried out. (There is now a survey of these boxes, showing their location in the cavern).

“After a party had been taken through the cavern a lady said to Pengelly.’’ Do you think Mr Pengelly that this is more than 4000 years old?” “Yes madam. I think you may add another nought to that number and still another. In fact you can make it as noughty as you like”. (26).

The TNHS needed new premises and by 1873 had agreed on a site in Torwood Road , completed in 1875 and moved into by 1876.

Post 1871 Besley’s Handbook (17) indicates permission must be obtained from the agents of Sir L. Palk or of the committee of the Torquay Natural History Society.

Editions of John Murray’s Handbook for travellers in Devon and Cornwall appeared in 1872 (or earlier) (18). “Permission from No.1. Victoria Cottages, Abbey Road- a guide with a torch required. Charge 3/- and visitors who desire a good light should provide their own.” John Clinnick, a workman, discovered a chamber in 1875,and this was named after him. Nicholas Luscombe, employed at this time, became ill and William Matthews took his place. Matthew’s Passage was found 1876.
W. Pengelly gave many lectures, and one at Glasgow in 1875 described his thoughts on the antiquity of man. “I have gone to Kent’s Cavern every day of my life from the 28th March 1865, up to the present day, excepting those rare instances when I am home. I have had the pleasure of taking into Kent’s Cavern a great many distinguished men, amongst them my distinguished friend Sir William Thomson. There is a malicious story current about Torquay, to the effect that one day I was unable to go to the cavern, and my boots were met walking out of their own accord!” (28).His story continues, “We are careful not to give orders for any person to see the cavern, except with a guide, but not to where the work is in progress .The reason is we once did give an order to two young men, and they foolishly put a Roman coin into the deposits, and our workmen dug it out. I came by appointment to meet my young friends, when the foreman came aside to me and said “This is very disagreeable to us. These gentlemen must have put this coin in the deposit. It is quite bright.” I looked at it, and handing it to the gentlemen said “Will you be so good as to take your coin. It has done all the work you intended” From that time we have passed a self-denying ordinance, never again to give anyone an order to see the cavern.” I hold that scientific investigation should not be undertaken with any theological bias ,but that it must and should be undertaken with a religious regard for truth and accuracy, and hence the care we bestow and the restrictions we make”.

In 1880 the excavations were ceased by Pengelly, and George Smerdon eked out a living for the next 7 years showing around visitors. Smerdon received a small pension and was the custodian of the cavern, together with his son-inlaw Francis Powe. The South Entrance had a door, wall and bench and Topsy the donkey (seen in postcards by 1900). The North Entrance still showed as a wooden grill in paintings. When George was ill his son-in-law Francis Powe took over duties .George died in 1889, and Francis Powe then rented the cave from the Haldon Estate.

Westley 1882(19) only stated “guides and candles being absolutely necessary. It is well to ascertain, at the museum, in passing, what time anyone is in attendance”

Murray’s later edition 1887(20), indicates “A guide will be found 10 am - 5pm daily, with a charge of 3/-.” W. Pengelly died in 1894.

By 1895(21) the guide, from 10am - 5pm, was charging “1/6d for a party not exceeding 3, and the time taken is half an hour”.

Between these dates (1887 and 1895) Beatrix Potter visited and had indicated there were excellent booklets (none known).

1897 saw the Ward Lock guides(22) describing “There is an attendant,who shows the cave, and provides candles for visitors at a charge of 1/6d for 3 persons or less, larger parties 6d each.” About this time the cave was used as a carpenter’s workshop, making wooden bathing huts for the local beaches.

The Haldon Estate was still in financial difficulties and in June 1902 the Town Clerk reported to the committee a letter from Messrs Walker and Son, dated the 5th instant, offering to sell lot 121 (Kent’s Cavern) containing 8 acres for 800 pounds, and part lot 129 adjoining Lincombe Drive, containing 16 acres for 1600 pounds. The committee could not see their way to entertain the purchase of either lot. On the 1st Sept. the Roads Committee considered the question of purchase again, but no offer was made. The offer was modified and sent to Francis Powe, who negotiated a very good deal and signed for the purchase on 23rd April 1903. For the purchase the letter in Feb. indicated part of the lot had been sold and the reduced lot was offered. A 30 pound deposit was paid, and the remainder, totalling 300 pounds, in April. From now on the Powe family were in control. The first adverts for visits were placed in the Torquay Times on Friday 10th July 1903.

CONCLUSION

There had been 80 plus years of continuous discovery in Kent’s Cavern .The early years were marked by a free for all. Bones were sold to collections. There was digging and exploration. Sir L. V. Palk had good sense to control access and let the TNHS complete the early discoveries by Northmore and MacEnery through the very able W. Pengelly. The religious establishments took a long time to be convinced of’ ‘The antiquity of Man’; it was not in their interests.This history is in 4 parts as listed below and will be continued in future BB’s:

Pt 1. Visitors and Guides. Pt 2. J. MacEnery.
Pt 3. W.Pengelly.

Pt 4. The Show Cave years

NOTES AND REFERENCES

1. Hyett .W. 1805. Exeter. ‘A description of the watering places on the South East coast of Devon, from the river Exe to the Dart inclusive’ . Pp 90-93

2. Encyclopedia Londonensis. 1812. ’ Kent’s Hole’.vol. x1. P. 674.

3. Croydon. E. Teignmouth 1818. ‘A Guide to the watering places on the coast between the Exe and the Dart etc’. Pp . 23-31.

4. Ellis. A. 1930. Torquay. An Historical survey of Torquay. Chapter 1.

5. Baring-Gould. Book of the West .Vol 1 .Chapt xv1

6. Rev. Buckland W. Reliquiae Diluvianae .1823.John Murray. London. Kent’s Cavern mentioned p 69.

7.Blewitt.Octavian.1832. pub. E.Cockrem, Torquay. Pp107-138

8. Howard J. post 1879. Torquay. ‘The Caves of South Devon and their teachings’

9. Cockrem. E. and Elliot. W. 1841. Torquay. ‘A Guide to Torquay’ .Pp 13-15 plus engraving

10. Croydon E. 1848.Teignmouth. Handbook for Torquay and its Neighbourhood Pp29

11. Croydon. 1851 Torquay. p 55

12. Croydon. 1852.Torquay.

13. Croydon. 1854. p 202

14. Croydon post 54. p 55 (mentions this present summer of 54)

15. Croydon post 55.p 56

16. Cockrem .1864.Torquay. p6

17. Besley and son. post 1871. Handbook of South Devon and Dartmoor. p72

18. John Murray.1872. Handbook for travellers in Devon and Cornwall. Pp169-171

19. A Westley.1882. Tourist guide to Torquay . Pp74

20. John Murray 1887.Pp159-160

21. John Murray.1895.Pp156-158

22. Ward, Lock.1897. ‘A new pictorial and descriptive guide to Torquay’, Paignton Dartmouth, Totnes . p41

23. J.T. White .1878 Torquay. .History of Torquay Pp 361-368

24. J. MacEnery. Cavern Researches 1859.Torquay. Pub. E. Cockrem. Dedicated by E. Vivian. P6

25. Croydon. 1841.

26. Ellis. A. An Historical Survey of Torquay .1930.Torquay. p10

27. H. Pengelly .A Memoir of William Pengelly. 1897 London. p 161. ‘from the Journal of William Pengelly.’ Pub. J. Murray. Entrance to Kent’s Hole p162

28. W. Pengelly. ‘Kent’s Cavern’. Its Testimony to the Antiquity of Man. A lecture Dec 1875 Pp16, 17.

General references

These include letters and papers read to societies and published by W.Pengelly. The Literature of Kents Cavern prior to 1859 (part1), Parts 2&3 .

The whole of the Rev. J. MacEnery ‘s manuscript (1869)

16 reports of The Committees for Exploring Kent’s Cavern (British Association from 1865) can be accessed at Torquay Library and the T.N.H.S.

 


St Cuthbert's Cave

by Kangy

I'm a bit of a St Cuthbert fan. He might even be my patron saint. My wife Janet has made a good recovery from two new knees and as a Munroist and ex skiing instructor she ensured I got the message that we were to walk the St. Cuthbert's Way. Once it had clicked that she was serious and that not only was St Cuthbert involved but there was a St Cuthbert’s Cave to visit on the way I was sold on the idea.

Being Old and Decrepit we took advantage of ‘Contours’ a walking outfit which takes your request and organises B&B’s and delivers your bags for you to the B&B ready to be used that evening. No more sniffy shirts, disgusting drawers and having to put up with wet clothing — nice.

The Way follows an imaginary route which connects two important influences in St Cuthbert's life, Melrose Abbey and Lindisfarne on Holy Island. We walked the 60 miles from Melrose to Holy Island in an easy(ish) 6 days and had reasonable weather particularly on the highest point "Wideopen Hill" with good views and on the Cheviots where we had sunshine, mountain views and a 14 hour day which we hardly noticed in such spectacular surroundings.

The eagerly awaited St Cuthbert's Cave did not disappoint. Seeing it from the approach it is impressive.
It is really a shelter under an overhanging sandstone roof. I liked the red earth - St Cuthbert's red. It has graffiti scratched into the back wall, some of which are in copperplate and ancient which is a bit like ruins everywhere. St Cuthbert (635 - 687)) was carted about the place to keep his body safe from the Viking raiding parties (C 875) and his cave or rock shelter was one of the places where they likely rested overnight.

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On the hills

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St. Cuthbert’s Cave

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Inside the cave

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Then on to Holy Island. Worth a visit in its own right. The causeway is fun because it is underwater for 6 hour periods (the tide you know) .We just about made it with a quarter of an hour to spare. Tension, incentive to walk at top speed and exhilaration when we made it to Lindisfarne Priory. For the rest of the visit we loved walking the island from beach to beach. For info go to http://stcuthbertsway.info/


Meghalaya – “Abode of the Clouds 2013” (Pt. 2)

by Peter Glanvill

On the final descent some Goon show like pings and clatters caused the driver to stop as a fairly significant bit of steel dropped from the truck undercarriage. This turned out to be part of the cab suspension. The driver shook his head and said ‘Problem’. Angie and I went back up the track looking for the missing part whilst Pete Ludwig, Nick Tringham and Oana carried on down the hill. We returned to find the driver hard at work cobbling together a repair and within half an hour he had turned a crisis into a minor hitch. The truck rocked and lurched its way down to the 2011 camp site and we clambered out to meet the others. To reach Kseh is a 10 minute thrash through dense waist high vegetation consisting of various tall weeds and vines but Pete had his trusty machete and we soon had a serviceable path. The plan was for part of the group to climb into a high level inlet part way up what is a huge active resurgence cave. The entrance is about 15 metres high and wide and retains these dimensions for a considerable distance. The locals have, in the past, trapped bats for food here and one can see the constructions needed to support the nets across the entrance. The cave has also been used as a water source and there are bits of ironmongery, pipes and dams in a couple of places (some submerged to trap the unwary). There is a also a tatty electricity cable running along the wall! Progress is wading then swimming – the water is reasonably warm but thin wetsuits and buoyancy aids were needed.

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Angie and a dug out canoe in Kseh entrance

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Gour in the river passage

The project left Angie and I free to do some tourism and photog- raphy so we headed off upstream leaving the others to explore their lead. At one point during a swim there seemed to be a heavy drip from the roof. I looked up (you only do it once) to see we were under a very large bat colony. Eeeeugh! Spitting frequently with heads down we vigorously paddled past the bombing range. After passing a couple of large gour dams we stopped at another realizing that if I was going to get any photos I would have to get cracking. After a successful shot we made our way back to the entrance catching the others en route (their ‘inlet’ was an alcove.) Soon changed we made our way back to the truck and after picking up the ‘Khung Back Door’ team whose cave was still going albeit horizontally headed back to camp and some welcome beer. Robin Sheen and Ralph Doyle arrived in some style on a hired Enfield motorcycle having done some recce work at the other end of the Shnongrim ridge. They stayed for a few days before chugging off back to civilisation.

After an earlier start the next day we admired Oana’s recently captured small fruit bat and a spectacular drongo trapped by the parasitologists. The drongo is a fine looking bird with a distinctive long plumed tail. Whilst the Khung Back Door team planned to continue work, a large group comprising Thomas, Angie, myself, Ralph and Brian were to recce a cave called Tiger Cave by the locals. It was a newish area relatively close to camp and reached by a steep trail through the pine forest. Thomas had announced that light weight gear and no wellies were the order of the day so, after a long downhill trek through forest, scrub and paddy fields we were slightly miffed to arrive at a river bed complete with river – requiring wellies. Not willing to get our surface walking kit wet Angie and I decided to go walkabout and waved the others off. They had gone upstream, so we headed downstream following the bank and, after just overshooting our homeward route were rewarded for our error by a cold draught blowing down a dry stream bed from a small side valley.

We quickly tramped up the valley to a scramble over and between boulders ending in a large cave entrance. Putting on our kit we scuttled into the low entrance passage. This soon developed into walking cave with ancient stalagmite flows on the walls. However after 80 metres we were back in daylight confronted by a pool. As our original reason for not following the others was to not get our walking boots wet this was a problem, quickly circumvented by hurling boulders into the pool to create stepping stones. Once across another passage segment emptied into a ‘lost world’ doline about 50 metres across, full of vegetation including a large Ficus (rubber tree family) and evidence on the sides that this might have been a partial chamber collapse. By clambering over the plants we could reach an open rift running along one wall and re-enter more relict passage that eventually terminated in a choke up to the surface bound together by some really stout tree roots forming a natural grille. The cave was latter dubbed Krem Lyer (lyer = wind).

Feeling quite chuffed over our little find we spent some time on photography but could do little else lacking surveying kit. Checking the time we decided to wander downstream further and examined another side valley. This time there no caves but it terminated in a pleasant little gorge and pool.

We then slowly made our way back up to the paddy fields and, en route, took the opportunity to inspect another doline at a dip in the track. This had a local name, Poh Lakhar, and initially seemed to consist of a network of mud choked rifts until at one end I found a climb down into what appeared to be a clean washed canyon passage. We returned to the track and met Thomas’ team further up the hill. They had explored and surveyed several segments of cave passage in the side of the gorge the river had run into but there was still work to be done. A long slow plod back up the hill got us back to the track back to camp and we ambled slowly back to a supper with chips!

The next day it was decided that Mark Tringham, Angie and me would survey Krem Lyer but en route recce Poh Lakhar. Back at the cave the climb looked a little tricky so a hand line was placed and a 3 metre scramble entered the canyon passage seen the previous day. It looked promising, so after a crash course in Distox surveying for Angie we started working our way in. The passage, about a metre wide and 3 metres high meandered along past a low silty section to a narrow drop past a large stal bank. It continued, steadily enlarging to something like 3 metres across with a boulder floor to a chamber with a daylight shaft and another drop negotiated by a traverse and climb over stal.
We passed through a chamber with an obvious high level passage after which the cave degenerated into a crawl over silt then mud and ended in a duck or sump with another daylight entrance. I decided to call this The Yuck. Feeling a little under dressed for this we headed out, taking photos, whilst Mark surveyed a short side passage on his own. He also briefly visited the high level stuff and pronounced it going cave that was nicely decorated. Noticing the time we made a rapid exit and ended up walking most of the hill in the dark on the way back.

After a slightly damp night the next day dawned warm and sunny and a large team set off to blitz the Tiger, Poh Lakhar and Krem Lyer systems. Our little Poh Lakhar team was augmented with Nick and Oana who was up for catching all the wildlife she could. I got brownie points for a couple of ‘prawns’ and Oana plucked a bat from the walls like an apple from a tree and then nonchalantly left it wriggling in a linen bag on a boulder to be collected later. She later insisted on a photo or two with the local spiders – not creatures a confirmed arachnophobe really wants to approach but I bravely did so though stood well back when she decided to catch one by pursuing it around the roof with a BDH container! Angie and Mark were meanwhile surveying a side passage – uncompleted to Angie’s frustration after Mark had decided after some metres that he had had enough of the low meandering crawl.

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Nick Tringham with cave pearls

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Oana and a heteropoda spider

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Angie Glanvill in the main passage of Poh Lakhar

The high level passage proved to be very nicely decorated in places with crystal pools and cave pearls but ended in a low airless humid bedding plane full of snot gobbler webs. Arriving at The Yuck I decide on some J Rat style digging and wormed my way into a low wet bedding parallel to the duck and floored by disgusting grey mud. After several minutes shifting brushwood and boulders I could wriggle up into a small boulder chamber and was surprised to see daylight ahead. It then became clear that the others could bypass the Yuck to one side so arrived substantially cleaner than I was! After a few metres we emerged from a large resurgence entrance high up on the side of a gorge (presumably that containing Tiger Cave). The blocks on the cliff were so large it was impossible to find a quick and easy way to the stream bed so after some more photos we started out back through the cave.

Unfortunately during the trip Angie slipped twisting and injuring her foot so on exit we made a slow and painful journey back to the truck rendezvous in the woods. Two months later back in the UK she had an X-ray to reveal a fracture of her 5th metatarsal (long bones in the foot)! Back at camp an excellent meal of cauliflower pakoras then beef and pumpkin was washed down with lashings of local beer.

Angie with a sore foot remained confined to camp but caving continued and it was decided to visit some other leads not far from Poh Lakhar. Ralph, Urs and me were dropped off at the rendezvous point and headed to the area that Ralph had visited once before on a recce. After about 45 minutes thrashing through the bush we emerged in some paddy fields that bordered a rocky tree filled dry valley. More prolonged searching eventually located Krem Myntlang that began as an overhung cleft in the side of the valley. Fighting off the burr like and prickly vegetation we changed and scrambled down the initial entrance rift. This ran both ways but the more likely route went as a crawl in the base to a chamber and a curious eroded steeply angled descending tube from which came the sound of a small stream. We had been surveying as we went in but as point man it was my job to determine the main route. Upstream got wetter and narrower so downstream it was. This proved to be even wetter as it became a hands and knees crawl into a canal, albeit with plenty of airspace. En passant I managed to capture another prawn for the biologists. After 10 metres of wallowing I was back in inverted keyhole passage very much like the caves of County Clare so I thought Ralph ought to be at home! It continued in this vein as a narrow rift zigzagging between joints with standing stooping and crawling sections. As spotter for the team, carrying my little bottle of cerise nail polish, I had the pleasure of encountering all the spiders first so occasionally the sound of the stream gently trickling would be interrupted by a girly scream as one burst from cover.

There was a good draught and the passage was widening a bit so hopes were high. Occasionally the passage would be partially obstructed by some chunky sparkling speleothems. Unfortunately just as we were beginning to run out of time we also met a short cascade into what looked like much bigger passage. Although it was a short drop it was overhung and without tackle we had no means to descend safely so packed up, beetled out of the cave and back to the truck taking only an hour to do it.

The entertainment back at camp was the arrival of a huge lemon yellow leaf-like Lunar Moth that fluttered manically around the biology tent before being released into what became a very chilly night. Angie was getting increasingly fed up with her enforced stay in camp but felt her foot was improving. The rest of the team had been either Khung bashing or pushing the potential back door. Rob Eavis had arrived by then for a short stay and was snapping away enthusiastically. He took a wonderful picture of the camp at night with the star filled sky above. Krem Khung was a big fossil system found the previous year. After more than a kilometre of giant boulder hopping it had branched, one end terminating in a pitch into a lake for which the team had had high hopes. Unfortunately once down the pitch this year’s group found that there was no obvious route on and came to the conclusion that it was an enormous terminal sump. However several other leads needed pursuing and explorers were kept busy for the rest of the expedition pushing into boulder mazes and watery canals but to no avail as far as getting a really significant extension.

On the 11th February Krem Myntlang received a return visit from me, Bhushan Poshe (a new caver from Delhi) and Urs. We found a much shorter route to the cave, which was just as well as I was lugging a drill in an Ortlieb bag plus some tackle for the pitch. Bhushan was not impressed with the canal and took some time to pass it! At the final survey point the Distox decided to pack up, I found a natural belay and on further inspection felt we could have done the pitch with a couple of belts tied together! It got worse; after a duck under a stal flow the passage turned abruptly left into a flooded zone. Above what appeared to be a very low duck or sump the draught blew over a thick calcite floor that had formed above it. Determined not to be beaten I grabbed the bolt hammer to enlarge the approach and slid feet first into the pool, much to Urs’ alarm. Pleas to come out were ignored until my lips were sucking air from gaps amongst the stalactites and I could feel no airspace or decent widening beyond my probing wellies. Anywhere else this cave would have been earmarked for further attention – it had a flowing stream and draughted and clearly was destined to go places. We had to abandon it for perhaps a future generation of Meghalaya cave pushers and we made our way out. At the entrance we pushed Bhushan down the rift going the opposite way where running water could be heard. I now think it was another route into the streamway. We then visited the next cave up the valley – only a few metres away really and by combined tactics Urs and I clambered down a spider infested rift into a ‘new’ streamway that we soon realised was an inlet to Krem Myntlang. We surprised Bhushan by doing the loop and coming back out by the original entrance.

On our return we were intrigued to encounter a JCB working on the edge of the paddy fields. No pick up being available we slogged all the way back to camp and a meal with delicious deep fried aubergine as a starter.

No mention has been made of the camp fire. That’s because there was very little action around it because of the small numbers there. Rob Eavis and Nick Tringham amused themselves one evening by spending the time manoeuvring a large trunk around that was currently forming the centre piece for it. This was when they weren’t involved in farting competitions. Angie (the only woman about) was unimpressed!

On the 12th a new area was visited. This had been recced by Brian K. Daly in previous years but the caves located had not been fully explored or surveyed. To get there involved a longish drive. We travelled there in style, that first time, in a Scorpio SUV with air conditioning and music no less, probably because Brian was going. He took along me with Bhushan. The track led initially along the ridge and then steeply downhill through the busy village of Moo Knor or Mawknor. After winding through low scrubby woods we emerged onto a bare spur with a fine view back to the ridge and onward into the distance. We left the Scorpio and strolled down a bare grassy hillside through a field of grazing cattle into a tree girt rocky area. At the base of some low cliffs were Krem Sahiong 1 and, 50 metres or so away, Krem Sahiong 2. We started on KS 1 which lay in the corner of the depression and had a man sized entrance bounded by limestone blocks. I had been delegated to keep the book and a pig’s ear I made of it too! Fortunately the Distox Peter Ludwig had given to Brian failed to work properly and got more and more recalcitrant as the trip continued. Brian’s refined language got progressively coarser and I was impressed at how many western swear words he had acquired. I then committed the cardinal sin of removing the batteries (which were pretty flat) and replacing them not realizing that recalibration is needed if you do this.

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Brian Karpran Daly and formations in Krem Sahiong
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Bhushan Poshe on gour dams in Krem Sahiong

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‘Should have gone to Specsavers’

Before we gave up surveying we had worked our way in down a heavily stalled up boulder pile into a dry stream passage blocked by the collapse at the entrance in one direction but wide open and draughting in the other. Brian had apparently been to the end of the cave and said it ended in a choke with a possible crawl onwards. Soon after we entered the cave there was an obvious T-junction. The right hand turn seemed larger although the main route went straight on but into a crawl under formations. A high level route later turned out to be an oxbow. Bhushan, as the smallest, was despatched to inspect the crawl. After some minutes he returned to say that the passage beyond got extremely low and so it was left for the nice walking passage. However you will read a lot more about it later! The walking passage continued roomy and joint controlled varying from a rift, to minaret passage shaped to a tube and, after some distance, passed some glistening gour banks into a side chamber. After a brief look we continued to the muddy final bedding chamber where there was a route down through boulders but it dwindled to a low humid airless flat out narrowing uninspiring crawl. We headed out taking photos including a side chamber near the entrance
where 7 horseshoe bats were hanging right beside a small stream trickling out of the ceiling.

After leaving we went over to Sahiong 2 and I scrambled down into an attractive walking sized stream passage full of wildlife including bats and rats. This ended in a slot from which the sound of a stream could be heard – this was heading for Sahiong 1. In the other direction the cave led to another entrance and a deep pool where I stopped and returned. Then it was back to the Scorpio and camp picking up Pete Ludwig who seemed to be out on a ramble. Camp was quiet and occupied only by the kitchen staff and Angie for the Krem Khung team were on a major surveying trip and didn’t make it back until 9 pm.

Another visit to Krem Sahiong and Krem Tin (on the opposite of the spur to KS) was on the cards for the next day. This time the KS 1 team consisted of me, Simon, Oana and Adi. I was designated spotter and we made rapid progress surveying to the terminal choke and back to the chamber where the glistening gours were. I explained to Simon that we hadn’t examined the rather grotty looking side passages here so, of course, they had to be surveyed. Squeezing through into a narrow rift past an unpleasantly rocky side tube I found an interesting aven with a slot in the wall beside it. The aven seemed to close down but then Simon forced the slot. A voice came echoing back asking me about the big chamber the other side. ‘What big chamber?’ I asked. It had looked to Simon as though somebody had been there already. Adi joined him and after deciding the slot looked a bit narrow I reasoned that the unpleasant rocky tube would go to the same place. It did, and I joined the others in the biggest passage in the system all of 6 metres wide and 15 metres high with a heavy drip from the roof. One end terminated in a boulder area and a bat colony. At the other after a relative constriction the cave enlarged again and sloped down to some strange draughting tubes. Simon insisted on calling the chamber ’Should have gone to SpecSavers’. The first photographs I tried here were badly affected by condensation so after realising the time we rushed out scooping up Oana en route so to speak. Back at camp it was a cold quiet evening until the Krem Khung team returned.
On St. Valentine’s Day a large team minus Angie and Urs went to Krem Khung. One group were to go the end of the cave whilst Bhushan, Thomas, Adi and myself were going to inspect a possible lead just before the cave got unpleasantly bouldery. The drive was the same as to Krem Lymke the first cave we had visited on the trip but on this occasion we took a route that led straight down a spur off the ridge on a rocky well worn path through woods. The valley below was dotted with small abandoned coal pits and paddy fields and we wended our way towards a line of low cliffs a kilometre away. The entrance to Krem Khung is a low stoop into walking passage at the base of a cliff by a pool. A large crowd of us slowly dispersed leaving Bhushan, Adi, Thomas and myself as tail enders. After a scramble through some ancient massive stalagmite formations cementing even bigger boulders we entered the main fossil passage – it was huge! Often 30 metres wide and high it stretched into the distance. The streamway followed one wall initially and after some stomping passage we were forced to climb down and wade through some neck deep water to make reasonable progress. The cave’s dimensions reduced to just ‘large’ and there were some attractive gour dams and stal banks to be seen. We stopped at a point where a large side passage entered and Thomas headed up it over a floor of calcited mud and drip pits. One end of it was dominated by a massive and, as I found out, loose choke whilst the other dwindled to a rift passage that Thomas and Adi commenced surveying whilst Bhushan and I attempted to take photographs. I took the pictures and Bhushan was the model. I was disappointed later to find that the autofocus failed to cope with the size of the chamber and many shots had just lost their edge. Adi and Thomas returned and we slowly made our way out Adi and me taking photos. Adi used an open flash technique with a tripod and his results were extremely impressive making most of my images look like snapshots! Back near the entrance he decided to remain in the cave doing some solo photography whilst the rest of us carried on out and slowly plodded back to the waiting truck about 45 minutes away. Simon, Rob, Mark Nick and Cookie returned some hours later having found and surveyed yet more passage.

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Side passage in Krem Khung

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Krem Kung Streamway

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Decorated area Krem Khung

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Biologist at work
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Walking to Krem Khung
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Looking for parasites
The following day Angie deemed her foot just about OK for a caving trip so joined a party consisting of Oana, Khlur ( a local cave biologist), Simon and myself to ‘finish off’ Krem Sahiong. Anticipating a brief trip I wore shorts under my over suit. We were soon at ‘Should have gone to Specsavers’ by Simon and surveyed both ways. Despite some grovelling under boulders in the floor no way on could be found so we headed back to the entrance area prepared to run a couple of legs down Bhushan’s too tight passage, pack up and leave. Angie, on point, scuttled away giving a running commentary on the lines of “ It’s a sandy crawl, there’s a draught, it’s getting bigger, it’s walking passage – still going!” We all wormed through a very comfortable flat out wriggle in sand to a well decorated rift where progress was to made by traversing. At a junction it continued with the floor slowly dropping away until Simon pointed out that we could probably proceed at floor level. Backtracking slightly a wriggle to the base of the rift was found and we headed off downstream surveying as fast as we could. We were now in a 4 metre high half a metre wide joint controlled stream passage minus the stream at present. After 200 metres and with no sign of an end we had to turn back , picking up the biologists en route. Back at camp we found a threatened beer drought had been averted by a trip to town (probably something like 2 hours drive away – at least).

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The ‘very low’ crawl

Although keen to return to Sahiong Simon had other fish to fry and most people were working either in Krem Khung or on remaining leads in Krem Kseh so I had a day off in camp with Mark and Angie. Boredom rapidly ensued so Mark and I went for a stroll. A small stream crossed the lower end of the camp site then meandered down a small sandstone gorge before pitching over a 20 metre cliff. After some unpleasant thrashing in the bushes we located a scramble down to the base of the massively bedded golden sandstone cliffs. We worked our way along the base twixt bamboo clumps and bananas to reach the base of the cascade where enormous roots spread out into a rather uninviting pool. Mark returned and I explored further crossing the stream bed onto a very obvious path that led downhill through abandoned fields to a track and another dry valley. At this point the sound of crackling and the smell of smoke prompted me to make my way back as the locals seemed to have decided to do some scrub clearance in the area.

The next day began overcast. We planned to knock off the Sahiongs so a team consisting of Simon, Cookie, Angie, Thomas and me set off for Moo Knor. Thomas and Cookie were to survey Sahiong 2 and we were to work on S1. We were soon surveying down a stooping height passage with a gravel floor when Angie started to grumble about the smell. Around the next bend were piles of rotting fish, abandoned when the cave drained after the last wet spell. We hurried past them and got very excited when we reached a junction with an echo. The passage enlarged to about 1.5 metres wide but never more than 2 metres high although its shape varied considerably. Very joint controlled it allowed us to get several survey legs of over 30 metres. Occasional oxbows provided light relief although we had to ignore some inlets. Suddenly Angie’s voice really started to echo and we popped up under a strange shale band into a large trench like tunnel ending in a void. This turned out to be a 10 metre drop into a 25 metre long 7 metre wide terminal sump or lake full of white fish – The Lake of Terminal Gloom. A slippery side passage allowed me down to lake level and, to be honest, I almost shot into the lake which looked deep. A sweaty thrutch back out to a supportive Simon followed.

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Simon Brooks keeping the book, Krem Sahiong
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Typical canyon passage, Krem Sahiong
Back at the T junction Angie and Simon surveyed a short distance upstream before we realised time was against us. We made our way out well pleased with the day’s effort (something like 700 metres of passage surveyed) but knowing that we still hadn’t finished. It was now late afternoon and on emerging we found a grey twilight and a steady downpour. Trudging up to the truck rendezvous we met Thomas and Cookie who had managed to complete a survey of Sahiong 2. We stood dripping noticing an absence of truck very quickly. Deciding that starting to walk was preferable to standing like Clidders* preparing for dissolution we set off up the hill. Angie was limping badly on her bad foot and after a while her other foot developed a blister. The gloom intensified and every so often locals would splash past us in bare feet. The haul up through the village was interminable and we hoped to meet the truck at the top – no such luck. Strung out along the track we plodded through mist and rain completely disorientated with Angie going more and more slowly. At last I recognised the turn off for camp and we staggered down the track into camp. Apparently the truck driver had decided the rain would render the track impassable and hadn’t even attempted it! Large quantities of beer and food helped revive us and we crawled off for an early night.

The next morning Simon Adi and Cookie decided to ‘finish off’ Sahiong 1 (again) much to Angie’s frustration as she was pretty crippled after the previous day’s adventures. I was invited to join Mark Tringham and Urs (one of the Swiss members of the team) to look for a Krem Rasin. This turned out to be a country ramble on the opposite side of the ridge to our camp. The ground had dried well from the previous days rain and after walking past a farm and banana plantation we sauntered downhill through some pleasant pine forest to emerge among fields above a deep valley. I was despatched to the nearest house to get directions. This consisted of me saying ‘Kubhlei’ (the all purpose greeting/thank you word) then saying ‘Krem Rasin’ in an interrogatory tone and waving my arm vaguely. The farmer, continuing to strip bamboo with one hand, responded similarly by waving his free hand vaguely in the direction of the valley so off we went through the scrub, meandering downhill through trees and cycads following the barest hint of a path. Mark became increasingly despondent as we lost altitude and declared we were moving out of the limestone (if there was any in this area to start with).

We emerged onto paddy fields crossed by a large stream meandering across the valley floor. The odd cow mooched about. To our left some 30 metre high richly coloured sandstone cliffs came into view and in them were a couple of cave entrances. It looked like we might have found Krem Rasin. We continued downstream just for completeness until it was deemed that we were well below the limestone horizon and sat in the shade on the river bank for lunch. The river babbled past over moss and fern covered boulders. It was a really pleasant spot and very unlike others I had visited in Meghlaya.

After lunch we took a more direct route back to camp, inspecting the two caves on the way. Both were fissure rifts but clearly one was big enough to have a name so we are assuming that was Krem Rasin.

Back at camp the Sahiong team had tied up some loose ends but it was, apparently, still going! The evening’s entertainment was provided by Mark and Nick Tringham using the camp fire as a funeral pyre for their trusty old family tent, aided and abetted by Peter Ludwig.

The expedition was drawing to a close but Sahiong still beckoned. Angie, Brian and I launched the final assault and after taking some time to find the final survey station from the previous day’s efforts started work. The passage, which seemed to be an upstream continuation of the system, rapidly degenerated into a series of low muddy wallows until eventually we decided that it sumped (or if it didn’t none of us were going to face completed immersion to find out). There was certainly no draught. Sahiong had been finished off and, for what originally seemed like a cave needing only one survey trip, turned out to have 1.8 Km of passage—one of the longest new caves surveyed on the trip.

Some tidying up of the Kung survey was done by the team the following day whilst some us started cleaning kit and preparing to pack. Mark and Nick had an open air SRT session on the sandstone cliff below the camp where one could follow the line of a waterfall whilst dodging the massive tree roots at the base of the climb.

The next day after packing the kit the team started the long journey back to Shillong. This was enlivened by our encountering a number of election rallies en route before finally pulling into Brian’s compound well after dark. Shortly after this we realized that if we didn’t get out of town the next day we would be stuck there until after the election so the usual post expedition party never really took place and there was a mass dispersal the next morning .

For those of you who would like to go on one of these trips the dates for next year have already been set—basically
February 2014 when a different area will be visited.

Finally if you want to know more about caving in Meghalaya (and the Kopili area specifically) then get hold of a copy of Cave Pearls of Meghalaya Volume 1 —it has already won a prestigious award and is well worth the price.

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Brian K. Daly in upstream Sahiong 1

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SRT practice

BB548 006
Krem Rasin

 

*Clidders were gelatinous creatures that were lost in the Flood. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Log_of_the_Ark


Of Mice, Scallops, Stags and Cavers – The Mendip Migration 2013

By Stu Lindsay

This year’s migration was a busy affair with no less than 33 people (over 150 bed nights) making an appearance for a few days or more with at least half a dozen regular faces for various reasons failing to show. Lucky them! It had to come; a run of bad weather well bad to the point that it was not blue skies and sunshine until all had gone home except for Duncan and Stu. (The last day is always traditionally the best – Ed)

As always one of the main attractions was Campbell’s. This giant of a dig, up valley from Claonaite, had seen another wet damaging winter with large chunks of the peat overlying the lip being washed into the hole. For most of his time Stu L along with help from various members of the migration endeavoured to build up the final section at the top of the entrance slope retaining wall and pave the area of the stream bed immediately above it.

Meanwhile below ground some of last year’s efforts had been buried and another route appeared to have been partially washed out; this would be the focus of the 2013 effort. However as mentioned the elements were against us, with snow wind rain and cold all randomly available at any time of the day. To say conditions were unpleasant was an understatement until that is Jo Meldner, on her first migration, and Liz Wire stepped in and engineered Ye Hotel Comfy Depression in the larger (2 -3m wide) of the 2 storage depressions, with seats a shelf and even a mini roof! A pole driven into the floor soon found a space below the peat and the water puddling in the bottom drained away. We now had some respite to nibble our sarnies and drink our tea from the oft evil wind blown snow! Note that in the past five migrations 3 have been tee shirt and shorts weather, one has been 4/5 days from 12 when the weather was damp with the odd snow flurry but this year it certainly bucked the trend . Although 27 people and Digger the dog helped out at the dig the kibble count was down. The previous year saw 286 kibbles retrieved in about 5 hours but in the whole of the 2013 migration we only just came close to doubling it. Water on day one was measured at just over 20 litres a minute, (or 1.5 tonnes an hour!) running into the dig from the stream; there were days when it was double that, so no wonder progress was slow. It was cold wet muddy digging below and freezing cold on the surface. Progress was maybe a few metres.

The hole in the wall, just up from the stream which has received periodic attention from Mark Brown and Stu L over the past years was again not forgotten and on the final day all debris generated by a couple of visits in the week, (Jo M Barry and Stu L) was cleared into the stream to be slowly washed away. At the same time Stu spent the time clearing out a spring that had seemingly reversed itself in the old raised river bed. Simon Brooks declined the opportunity to investigate the metre by metre by over a metre and a half long passage because “The roof is only a few feet thick, and the grassed over boulders we are standing on are most of it”. Upon retelling the tale back at the Belfry (Stu’s ‘rivers of blood speech’, someone called it) about the digging exploits, procurement of the venison and other events I suggested in reverence to the departed and partly consumed stag (see text later) I ought to call it Oh Deer but it was promptly stated that I should have called it Venison Stu……..so be it.

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View from the south of Campbell’s dig

BB548 034

The walled stream bed
Normally Assynt has a pattern; people arrive and go digging, walking or caving, then the pub then there is a day off. It’s usually the curry evening on the Thursday night. Digging and walking forays usually end up at the Inch or the Alt for a couple of pints or a meal before returning to the hut where those that have fed start to drink and those that need to be fed cook. Around 22.30 most people are drinking chatting swapping yarns and joking around the little wood stove till the wee small hours. But often there is a diversion……enter the scallop shell, a bit of science and a cremation……

The little wood burner generates quite a concentrated heat; about a tenth of the Belfry stove on a bad day but it needs feeding regularly. Duncan wondered if a scallop shell would burn and as there’s plenty of these lying around he deftly placed one amongst the glowing embers. However, far from actually burning it changed colour and almost glowed. It was readily removed with the help of barbeque tongs for a closer inspection, and was now a pure white shell devoid of markings. Now earlier in the day a routine check of the mouse traps in the attic resulted in a mummified mouse being extricated and binned. One and one makes – you’ve guessed it! Somehow the poor thing was retrieved from the bin. “How sad,” said Duncan “A poor mouse binned. Let’s give him a decent funeral - a cremation.” So the fire was re-fuelled and another bed of embers sat there patiently glowing. The mouse, on its cremation vessel, was duly inserted, and a few more bottles of ale were consumed as the mouse gradually glowed to extinction and the shell was removed.

Some time later Stu happened to mention to Duncan that years ago they used to cook limestone boulders for 24 hours then immerse them in cold water and next day they had mortar or a form of quicklime. Back into the dying embers went the shell; again it glowed and was then removed to be immersed in a randomly selected cereal bowl of cold water. “Sssssssssssssssssssszzzzzzzzzzzzzzz bubble bubble!” - and although the shell reappeared from the departing steam almost intact, the process had started and the now cold shell in cold water started to crumble aided by the odd poke of a finger At the same time the dish began to warm, (chemical reaction). It got warmer and warmer and warmer. “Blimey!” said Duncan, “We have created Plaster of Paris with essence of mouse!” Next day it was quite impressive. Anyone with a broken bone needing a splint?

May Day was truly a “Mayday! Mayday!” moment. Everybody was driving back from the Inch when a young suicidal stag decided to end it all by hurling itself across the road impacting the front of Stu’s van and staggering 20m to its final resting place - well almost final. With Liz having appeared looking for Matt as he was late all successfully made it back to the hut including Rambo, the one horned stag. Enter the butcher Mr Knief and with his willing apprentices Rambo was duly carved up with a couple of kitchen knives and a wood saw. “Beware yellow snow?” No, “Beware pink snow!” The GSG car park is on a slope and the tell tale signs of the impromptu carnage had dribbled down the lane and like invisible ink reappeared through the dustings of snow over the next few days. Fried venison, stewed venison, grilled venison (we would have had venison burgers if we had a mincer) was the primary source of protein for the rest of the week.

It is with many thanks Stu has to be grateful to Barry Lawton and to Bob Mehew. Bob for going into Inverness to collect spare parts and Barry for expertly fitting them. Duncan and I finally made it back to Mendip, thanks to a few bits of string and a roll of parcel tape (yep that’s the truth parcel tape) and string holding the front together in the absence of bodywork to attach the bonnet and light to.

On inspection the van was written off twice before the power of the community of the caving world and TLC took a hand. Who would have thought that (and most people know what a Tardis Stu’s van can be) a simple comment like “What am I going to do with all my caving kit?” would provoke an almost complete turnaround? “Oh, you’re a caver? I have a friend who is a caver - dives all over the world, usually has a pony tail, his name is Simon.” The TLC is a certain practice I employ with all my vehicles which is to never use tap water in the cooling system. Simon was Simon Brooks present at the feasting on poor old Rambo!

Two final well attended sessions took place at Campbell’s the second, on probably the best day weather-wise was a hectic digging session followed by the lowering of the tower. The weather this year was certainly the over riding influence, snow on 3 or 4 days with flurries on others, and nothing like the warm weather experienced over the past few years, but that is what makes it so much better in the majority of years when the sun shines the wind blows warm and the eagles feel free to soar. With the tower down, most went their separate ways, save Duncan and Stu for whom a fun day was still in store. Below two photographs of Barry Lawton in the dig

BB548 041   BB548 044
The last day was spent with Duncan diving in the loch at Knockan. During the course of it a concerned visitor, Sue from Scottish Heritage appeared. However, after explaining who we were and what we were doing she relaxed as she was aux fait with the GSG and indeed had been to the GNTM. Sue was very to thankful to Duncan for not only removing a load of old and illegal fishing tackle but also his info on the shape of the loch edge; a series of steps and transit van sized boulders. There were small green or white sponges and finger sized sharp pointed green plants which grow on the 6inch layer of peat. No fish were seen. “Feel free to dive again and try to put a report into the GSG publications of your findings,” Sue said as she departed.

After dinner and with the sun blazing down a trip up from Stromcubie (sic) was made to follow up a lead found a couple days before. Duncan and Stu in tee shirts and shorts spent a few hours in the warm sun kissed hummocks of peat without successfully re finding the hole. They split up and Duncan found a bit of an anomaly in the upper river bed which he commenced to exploit. Stu found a number of active little sinks taking water before in a depression he found one with 2 streams entering. After building a couple of dams, easy with the peat, he built up a head of water whilst he cleared out the entrance way, With no tools it was limited but water did seem to go down a bit. Breaking the dams a surge of water entered, and after, the flood pulse gurgled away for a count of 15 seconds before it was quiet again.

After he joined Duncan the next hour was spent enlarging holes and peering into voids. The water flowing down the surface stream was less than the water appearing at the first point Duncan explored. After our efforts and some upstream efforts by Duncan, the water on the surface was reduced by half, however clearing out a number of small apparently unrelated resurgences in a radius of 3m or so trebled the water flowing onwards downstream to a water fall. There are some small cave passages there, and some intertwining springs, but what we achieved was more for the fun aspect in doing it than true research. All the way down to the water fall water appeared and disappeared, and high on the bank some 15m/20m higher and 20m or so from the edge three body size sinks were noted. At 8pm in glorious sunshine we called it a day and, a big mistake, went to the hut had food changed and went back to the Inch. It was closed - at 930pm it was closed! So we went to the Alt and spent a cheerful hour with some of the locals. The Mendip Migration may be a long way but it is really good fun with good beer good food great walks interesting caving and of course digging - if you like it.

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Foul Weather

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The author breakfasting

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Trevor the butcher

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Cul Mhor viewed from the GSG hut

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Barry Lawton by 3 G’s dig in high water conditions


Tale Piece

The Tale Piece is for anecdotes, people profiles, or any other interesting item that you like and, of course - tales. Ideas and suggestions are always welcome.

 

Bill Combley’s Bio

Groucho Marx once said "I would never join a club that would have me as a member!", and for many years this held true for me.

I have been exploring mines, quarries and latterly caves since the age of about 10 when my father took myself and one of my older brothers on a walking holiday in North Wales and the Lake District, where we explored Rhosydd Quarry and some of T'owd Man's levels around Coniston by candle light. I was hooked! Every holiday I begged to go back to Wales and explore more and, to that end, over the intervening 30 odd years I have managed to do so.

I had a break from exploring during the 1990s to the mid 2000s as I moved to the very south of England, got married and raised a family, but then a chance e-mail from one of my brothers (who lives in Australia) led me into the murky world of urban exploration which led to me joining the Dark Places forum in 2004 and to exploring Box Quarry and other Bathstone Quarries. Whilst living in the south, my nephew asked me if I had a boiler suit he could borrow as he was off caving with a friend of his. I lent him my spare "decorating" boiler suit and off he went. A few months later I was invited by the same nephew to come on a day trip to Mendip to go caving. We had a poke in Rod's Pot and some of the other Burrington caves.

That was it. I was hooked again and I started spending more and more of my free weekends on Mendip, getting to know the caves and more importantly some of the local characters. I first started to stay at the Wessex, and most weekends I'd drop into Wells and spend money on shiny kit in Jrat's shop (I'd always ask Tony if he would like me to leave the money in his pot at the Hunters, but he wanted it in the till). I think it was Slug who suggested I stay at the Belfry rather than the Wessex; well that happened and I enjoyed my visits. In 2008 I moved into the heart of Priddy and joined the B.E.C. At first I was a bit "off the wall" to say the least (!) and underwent a period of extra probation - lesson learned there. Here we are in 2013 and I'm now part of the club committee with the post of Tackle Warden.

My "grand plan" for the coming year is to maintain the club equipment that the previous Tackle Wardens have left me, I shall investigate the age and suitability of the club's tackle and replace if it is deemed necessary. Please continue to use the tackle log to record where you're taking the kit, and, don't forget to wash it after use before returning it to the store!

Toodle pip, see you all at the Belfry, in a cave, or in the Hunters!


BB548 062

Who can name this famous Mendip caver?

 


Back cover image: Locke’s Hole by Peter Glanvill

BB548 053

The Belfry Bulletin

The Journal of the Bristol Exploration Club
December 2011 NUMBER 542 VOLUME 58 Issue 5

Editorial

BB542-02Sadly, there are three obituaries in this issue: Bobbie Bagshaw, Ron Gollin & Barry Lane.

MadPhil is advertising the Ghar Parau Foundation, a charity that funds expeditions, please help support this excellent foundation by buying the set of cards.

I am as usual, looking for more material for the next issue, so if you have an interesting tale to tell, write it up!

 

 

Cover Photo’s:

Gornergletscher, in the glacier's moulins. Monte Rosa Massif, Switzerland.  

From: Henry Patton

Belfry Bulletin Number 542 Page_01

 Committee Members

Secretary Faye Litherland (1331)
Treasurer  Rob Harper (999)
Membership Secretary Hels Warren (1354)
Hut Warden Ian “Slug” Gregory (1123)
Hut Engineer Stu Lindsay (930)
Caving Secretary Stuart Gardiner (1347)
Tackle Master Henry Bennett (1079)
Editor Phil Romford (985)
Floating StuartMcManus (725)

Non-Committee Posts 

Librarians Tim Large & Rich Smith
Auditor Chris Smart
BEC Web Page Editors Henry Bennett and Rich Smith
Club Archivist John “Tangent" Williams
Club Trustees Bob Cork, Martin Grass, Nigel Taylor, Mike Wilson

Ghar Parau Foundation

(UK Registered Charity no. 267828-1)

Funding British Cave Exploration and Cave Science

We need your support!

The Ghar Parau Foundaton is a Charity that manages an investment fund to provide grant aid to assist caving expeditions from Britain to all parts of the world. The fund focuses on those expeditions which include an element of innovative exploration or scientific study. We are also particularly keen to encourage young cavers into expedition caving (as well as sport caving) to maintain an active caving community in years to come. 

The charity itself works by investing the capital within the fund and distributing the interest in the form of grants to caving expeditions who apply and fit the foundations criteria. As a result the fund only grows by direct donations, bequests or fund raising activities. Over last twenty years, the fund has not increased in capital value to any appreciable extent, which in real terms less money is available to distribute to caving expeditions.

As part of a new drive to increase the fund, a set of 10 high quality blank A5 colour gift cards with envelopes (shown opposite in black and white) have been produced to sell to raise money for the foundation. We are selling them for £8 per pack (0.80p per card) which we think is good value. The profits from the sale of these cards, goes solely to the Ghar Parau Foundation.

Please BUY them and support the Ghar Parau Foundation, and help support our British Caving Expeditions and our younger generation of cavers.

To order or of more information about donations, gift aid, etc, contact:

Madphil Rowsell 07929 572 177

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

BB542-05

Thank you for supporting the Ghar Parau Foundation


Obituary – Barry Lane

From Martin (Milche) Mills

VALE: BARRY LANE

BB542-04

Older members will be saddened to learn of Barry’s passing on 23rd June 2011 in Pembrokeshire.  He was a SMCC member from 1965 – 1969, and also a BEC member (No. 475) from 1961-70.  It would appear he may have been ill for some time as Roger and Jackie Dors exchanged Christmas cards with him and none was received in 2009.

My recollections of him are an impish grin and golden hair.  He once gave me a lift back from The Hunters’ to the hut.  We “roared” down the road in his ancient car and he had just made it into third gear when we were passed by a chasing dog before we slowed down for the hut track.

As this was my only initial recollection of him I am grateful to others who have provided other anecdotes.  He was in the 1st Whitchurch Boy Scouts band, and later a GPO/BT Telecoms Manager.

Bill Tolfree recalls a Yorkshire trip (pre-motorway days) when Barry travelled the whole journey with  his feet out of the car window as they smelt, and for which he gained the nickname “Footnic”.  On an Irish caving trip, Barry was in O’Connors Bar in Doolin and noticed a young girl dancing while her father drank.  He later married that girl, Teresa O’Driscoll, and they had a daughter.  As one person remarked he was always on Mendip, and then he was gone and we never saw him again.

The hut log for 1964 – 67 reveals mention of him on over 30 trips, predominately on Mendip, but also Yorkshire, Devon and South Wales.  He was a very competent caver and many were hard pushing trips: Blue Pencil Aven and First Mud Sump in Swildon’s, and to the top of High Chamber in St Cuthbert’s.  Even his tourist trips were challenging: an early Damp Link and Swildon’s figure of Eight trips.  Many appear to have been in the company of Steve Wynne-Roberts.  This possibly influenced him to take up cave diving, including in South Wales, Wookey Hole and Swildon’s.  He and Steve W-R dived to the bottom (105 ft depth) of The Lake in Pridhamsleigh Cavern on 3 June 1967 but omitted to notice the opening to Prid II due to the amount of silt stirred up.  He is probably best remembered for, with Phil Kingston and Colin Priddle (both BEC) and others, laying siege (at least a dozen recorded trips) by digging underwater the then terminal sump (now Sump 1) in St Cuthbert’s in 1966 – 67, making an estimated 21 feet of progress.

One day Barry went climbing with Steve W-R in the Avon Gorge.  Steve was sat belaying on a ledge facing outwards.  Barry set off up the next pitch which unfortunately led out to one side, crossed over Steve’s head and continued on the other side.  As Steve was changing the rope round to feed out to his other side, Barry fell off.  Steve grabbed the rope with both hands in front of him and held Barry’s fall but cutting great grooves in his hands and fingers.  When he went to work on Monday, he was an Engineer at Westinghouse, he found he couldn’t hold a pencil.  The first aid person took one look and despatched him to hospital.

Barry broke his left arm and spent many weeks convalescing at The Hunters’ playing shove halfpenny and became so proficient nobody could beat him!

That Barry Lane was a hard caver is evidenced by his being accorded his own song (few achieve this status) of a legendary race around Swildon’s, written by Snab with obvious Scottish overtones, to the traditional tune of “Johnny Cope”, and it seems very appropriate to end with this…………………

 
O send a letter tae Priddy Green
Saying Barry meet us if yer keen,
We’re the fastest cavers Mendip’s seen,
And we’ll race you in the morning.

CHORUS (after each verse)
Hey Barry Lane are ye walking yet
And is the record broken yet?
If ye were walking I would wait
Tae do the Round Trip in the morning.
When Barry looked the letter upon
He took his boots the cupboard from,
Saying “Come with me my Shepton men,
And we’ll do the Round Trip in the morning”.
 
When Snab and Goon read the meets list
They said “Oh on this we canne miss”.
And charged their lamps in readiness
For the Round Trip in the morning.
 
Next morning at the barn of Maine
Were Snab and Goon and Barry Lane.
“Aha” they said, “We meet again
To do the Round Trip in the morning”.
 
O Barry set off at a run
To beat the fastest time he’d done.
He went so fast he did a ton
In Swildon’s in the morning.
 
But Snab and Goon did not delay
They swore that they’d be first that day.
And they’d go round the other way
To beat Barry Lane in the morning.
The Double Troubles found all three
Ploughing through a muddy sea,
“Did you bale” said Barry. “No” said we,
As we passed each other in the morning.
 
The streamway was a flat out race
And everyone stepped up the pace.
No one wanted to lose face
And be last out in the morning.
 
At the Wet Way Barry Lane he led
So the Scotsmen round the Dry Way fled
And they beat him out by a very short head
And it only took an hour in the morning.
 
This story has a moral to tell,
It matters not if you can move like hell,
So long as you get out fit and well
For opening time in the morning.
 
CHORUS
Hey Barry Lane are ye walking yet
And is the record broken yet?
If ye were walking I would wait
Tae do the Round Trip in the morning.
 
MTM.

Obituary  – Ron Gollin

by Tony Setterington

BB542-06

Ron Gollin who was an early member of the BEC having joined from the Bridgwater Caving Club (Club No 103).

I first met Ron during Easter 1945. We were staying in Main's barn and I Don Coase and Pat Woodroffe. Although we were late to bed;  which meant burying ourselves in the hay, a group from Bridgwater arrived after us and piled in nearer the stairs. I got up the next morning and on the way down trod on Ron; he was not well pleased.

Ron was a graduate chemist and together with many others had been directed to work at the ROF in Puriton. He spent some time caving with the BCC and the BEC but was eventually released to work for Boots in Nottingham as a biochemist. From which he finally retired. During this time he frequently climbed in the Peak and in N. Wales. Once or twice a year the Boots CC would hire a coach and spend a bank holiday weekend at the Belfry when Ron could return to caving with the BEC. He was forced to give up active sports with a rheumatic ankle. Many years later, Ron's wife Sheila had to be placed in a care home and Ron was moved to another in Cheddar. He had a final pint, in The Hunters on Easter Monday this year and died the following day.

Ron is remembered as a good and kindly man who will be seriously missed and well remembered.

A Service of Thanksgiving for the life of Ronald Arthur Gollin 29th May 1916 - 31st May 2011Monday 13th June 2011


Obituary – Bobbie Bagshaw

By Shirley Hill

MEMORIES OF BOBBIE BAGSHAW

BB542-07

Robert Bagshaw, known as Bob or Bobbie by BEC members died on Monday 7 November 2011. Membership number 20L, he was one of the original members of the BEC involved from the early days of its inception. Not known as a caver, climber or diver, he contributed a great deal to its organisation as a serving member of the committee for 23 years between 1951 and 1973, the longest serving member in the history of the BEC. He became known for his persistence in collecting sixpences at the Wagon and Horses on Redcliffe Hill (now demolished) at the regular Thursday night meet.

Jim is not sure what these were for, this was not questioned and Jim was young and foolish at the time! Perhaps somebody can enlighten him. In honour of this Bob was awarded a wooden block inset with sixpences, which I am sure will bring fond memories to his wife Coral.

 

Bobbie during a caving conference in France in the early 1950’s.

He received two further awards from the BEC, his silver beer tankard in 1966 from which he was regularly seen imbibing in The Hunters and at his home. In Autumn 2007 Bob was touched to be presented with “A Certificate of Honorary Life Membership”.

“On his retirement in 1973, it was reported in the Belfry Bulletin “The calm and unflustered way by which Bob produced £3,000 out of the hat in what must be record time for a club such as ours, in order to finance the building of the present Belfry must surely be the highlight of his long term of office, which started before many of the younger members of the BEC were born.”

There is at least one record of Bob caving reported in the Belfry Bulletin: After a trip down St Cuthberts, Bob wrote “After many months (or should this be years?) I was persuaded to go down Cuthberts, but if ever I am again asked my reply will either be a derisive laugh or “Not B****y Likely”.

In his report, he writes “I rather feared that I should become a liability to the party, and I knew that certain members (especially those who have not yet paid their annual subs.) would rejoice if I were left down the cave.  My weight would, of course, defy all efforts to hoist me out.  In view of this, I did not go on one of the exploration trips, but remained behind and had about two hours sleep.  I woke up rather cold but soon warmed up in the scrambling exertions of the next trip.”

He was a lifelong member of CAMRA an important aspect of which was sampling ale in the various hostelries to check standards. He enjoyed visits to various breweries, one of which was a BEC visit to Ashvine in 1993 also attended by wife Coral and many of the current vintagers.

After his stroke he was nursed by his wife Coral and was regularly seen at The Hunters on Bank Holidays or at the Vintagers’ luncheons until his condition deteriorated and he was cared for until his death in a Bristol nursing home.

BB542-08

I am sure all with have fond memories of him


The Belfry 1947 to 1980 - Part 3

by Andy Macgregor

Eds note: The following is the 3rd and final part of Andy’s article. It’s a pity that Andy could find no record of Belfry work since 1980. Can anyone put together a history from 1980 onwards?

BB542-10 

The burning of the ruined Belfry: - Norman Petty, Garth Dell, Jock Orr, Alan Thomas, Hilary Thomas and taking the picture Andy Macgregor.

 BB542-12


A final farewell. Norman Petty on right.

The builder was given the go ahead on Tuesday 11th November and work began on the 12th, to build the new Belfry. The reason for the delay was because they could not go ahead until they had a definite answer from the Pearl Insurance Co. regarding the claim on the old Belfry.

The fact that work had begun did not mean that they raised all the money needed, but the difference was guaranteed in the form of loans from certain members.

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The outside of the new Belfry after the shell was completed.

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Inside the main room of the new Belfry at time of the shell being completed.

Visitors to the Belfry site by February 1970, found a splendid looking new Belfry standing proudly on the site. That they should be in a position to start occupying the new Belfry within six months of that tragic day, when the blackened shell of the Belfry seemed to mark the lowest ebb of the club, is an achievement of which everyone took some pride.

The job of fitting out then proceeded. Norman Petty built the kitchen unit. Most of the old bunk frames were repaired and repainted.

On the ninth of May the new Belfry had been officially opened in reasonable B.E.C. fashion, for which event thanks are particularly due to the organisers, Pete and Joyce Franklin.

On Monday, the 15th of September 1969, the club was faced with the destruction of the Belfry and the necessity of finding a sum in excess of £3,000 very rapidly. The alternatives would have been to abandon a Mendip headquarters for some time, or to put up some new temporary building, and thus push the problem of getting the club properly established on Mendip, back for a long while.

By the ninth of May, two hundred and thirty six days after the fire, the club formally took possession of its new hut, and the formidable sum of money was raised.

In 1977, a proposal was made to make some changes to the Belfry, as outline below: -

Main Changing Room

  1. Move the library into the main room in strong lockers. The library is no longer large enough.
  2. Block existing door from library into main room.
  3. Build low wall as shown, install two shower heads and tile throughout.
  4. Remove part of wall between library and existing changing room. Install 2 metre concrete lintel.
  5. Build wall between existing changing room and existing shower unit.

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Unliberated Persons Changing Room

  1. Remove wall at the back of individual shower unit.
  2. Build low wall as shown, install two shower heads and tile throughout.

In 1980, more proposals were put forward and publicised in the BB:-

  1. The Library is a room which can be used as a proper Library with space for tables and chairs, it will have adequate and proper storage space for books, maps etc. Ventilation will be much improved providing a better environment for the books etc.
  2. It was felt that a self-contained kitchen would improve hygiene and release much space in the main room for lockers etc.
  3. The Showers and Changing Rooms both male and female will be better sited for ventilation and provide more room. The main changing room will incorporate a dirty area entering the Belfry via the present women’s room external door. Once caving kit has been removed members can go to a cleaner changing area which will include washbasins, toilet and showers. A similar system will exist in the women’s changing area as can be seen on the plan. Ventilation will be aided by extractor fans and floor to ceiling tiling and better drains are to be provided so that the area can be hosed down and kept to the necessary hygienic standards.
  4. The provision of a drying room leading off the main changing area was decided to be of utmost importance. Ventilation will be provided by an extractor fan ducted to the outside wall. Heating could be provided by under floor electric elements linked to the off peak meter. This system is used at the Bradford Pothole Club and works very well.
  5. The new female bunkroom will still only cater for 6. The space on the plan is at present shown to be flexible, but once a suitable size has been decided for the room, a stud wall partition will be erected and any space left will be used for storage for the time being. The vacant space will give us room to expand should the need arise. One possibility for the vacant space would be an extension to the Library.

Any further changes have not been documented in the BB.

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The Belfry at the St. Cuthberts celebrations with some oldies in 2003. From left to right, Zot, Barry Wilton, Dave Irwin, Joan Bennett, unknown, Sett. unknown, Kangy, Andy Macgregor and Brian Prewer.

 

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The 1980 Plan

 

Caine Hill Moves into 2011

By Stu Lindsay

January 7th, 2011’s first visit saw TrevH, NigelTnT and StuL blow up the two ends. A quick visitation on the 9th by Trev and Stu found fume filled air and quickly checked all explosive material had detonated. Moved all bags to First chamber. 12th saw DaveB and StuL clear most of the End of Dig debris, 20 bags and some large lumps of rock, probably a metre of progress, so is that it for 2011? January 19th StuL and TrevH a quick clear up operation getting EOD debris to Third Chamber when DaveB turned up so we hauled to Son of a Pitch

Again on the 26th DaveB joined Trev and Stu to haul to Son of a Pitch, the total bags here now approaching 200. The final hauling session for the month saw JakeB join  Trev and Stu on the 26th,  the 2 hour session saw the surface temperature dropping  from chilly to bloody freezing,  even the effort of 132 bags to the surface failing to ward off the approaching zero temperature. It was a quiet month, but progress achieved after the stagnation of December.

February’s first visit of the month, the 2nd  saw just Trev and Stu,  all  “stray bags ” from End of Dig  were amassed in First Chamber,  before 30 bags were shunted up to  Son of a Pitch.  Trying to guess the stored bags at Son of a Pitch on the 6th failed, the hundred plus was actually only 79. Jake on the surface, Stu at half way and Trev at the bottom had them out in just over the hour. The 9th saw a solo from TrevH, when he cleared the bang debris from the base of the rift, and is now ready for more shotholes, there does seem to be some improvement in passage size but still a lot to do. The two large rocks in the Third Chamber were also rendered into baggable bits.

13TH   A 3 ¼ hour session, before Trev and Jake arrived , saw Stu capping and P& Feathering the way on at End of Dig heading downward in a passage, as opposed to a Rift, it looks to be maybe a metre high and wide. Jake and Trevor arrived concentrated on the rift getting everything back to First Chamber. Its back to Stu and Trev on the 16th, the original extension to the End of Dig after tonight’s clearance operation  is now almost big enough for two, there is the original higher level “tube”, uncovered in January, heading off pretty much northward. But the likely way on is probably down under the now quickly diminishing archway, chip chip, cap cap.  Saving the best to last, the final visit of the month was a good turnout with Ian Cedegy, Paul’s mate joining StuL, TrevH, JakeB, PhilC and JohnN to make 7 willing souls. Jake whizzed off to the end of Dig followed by Phil and were joined by the late arriving John.  The rest of us hauled to Son of a Pitch, the grand finale being to get the largest of the specimen rocks up to Son of a Pitch…a mere 30kgs or so

March, Stu, Trev and Dave kicked off the 2nd day of the month; Trev went down the rift to drill holes whilst Dave and Stu continued to loosen up the End of Dig. At the End of Dig progress was slowly beginning to reveal a possible way on down to the right, after a dozen bags and 5 or 6 rocks had been removed it made it clearer where Stu would drill some shot holes, initially just three at 500mm long but in the end six were drilled, with drill entry points in 2 groups of 3.  March 9TH was bang night, Trev, NigelTnT StuL and DaveB descended, Trev loaded the Rift and Stu and Dave marked time before the End of Dig also received a length or two. After 2 successful crumps, CHAPS was allowed to run for 15 mins, the strength of the fumes growing fainter as the pub beckoned.

An early start on Sunday 13th by Stu saw the CHAPS switched on for an hour. Below, in End of Dig fumes were mere occasional wisps, whilst the rift was not so clear and duly left for another day. Trev and Stu on this 3 hour session saw 40 bags dug, and moved back to First Chamber. The current rock bridge is almost history and working space has doubled.  2 again became 3 on the 16th Trev and Stu, joined latterly by Dave.  Stu in a 2 hour or so session before Trev arrived had almost made as much debris as the previous bang! This area, End of Dig seems to be quite wacky! Its like a boulder pile that has been modified, it does not seem to follow a basic conformity, and it is also quite damp, making the spoil claggy.  Dave joining the throng was an opportunity not to be missed, he was poked into the hole, whilst Trev departed for the rift to bag all the debris.  Finally about 40 bags were eventually hauled to the First Chamber.  March 20th weather was very good so with just 2 of us in 3 sessions, Stu doing surface haul first and last, Trev at Son of a Pitch we managed 77 bags out.  23rd, with Paul, PeteH and Phil digging Trev and Stu maintained the supply at Son of a Pitch by shunting 50 plus bags up. 27TH saw Jake join Stu, Jake filled another 5 bags in rift, before a concerted effort in the End of Dig, which is looking tight again. Last session was 30th of March 2011, when StuL, JakeB, TrevH and DaveB were joined by Henry Rockcliff from Derby area. Trevor drilled in the rift with Henry, whilst the size of the End of Dig allowed me to drill whilst Dave and Jake dug around me.

April 6th commenced with a bang, or should I say BANG. Nigel duly turned up with the bang and Trev and Stu descended to End of Dig. With 2 of us on the job detracted from our usual practice and increased the number of holes to 6 all went well with a pleasing crump that just about rattled Tims windows.  13TH saw JakeB, DaveB and StuL clear some quite large lumps and gain access to some more of the delightful Cainehill spoil, clearing all to Third Chamber the End of Dig was left as confusing as ever. 2 possibly 3 ways forward, the likely 2 being to the NW or the North.  With Stu migrating north the 20th saw Dave B and Trevor lengthen the Rift shotholes to 550 long and drill an additional one. Whilst Dave laboured away the evening digging at EOD, producing a good pile of bags of rock and mud. But most importantly, cleared away down dip to reveal an archway with soft mud infill and to prove that the flat bedding floor is not connected to most, if not all, of the obstructing rocks ahead. Last visit of April the 27th saw a good crew, Dave B, Phil C, Pete H, John N and Trevor and a warm evening so it seemed like a good idea to surface haul: the base of SOP was emptied of the 58 loads and the huge ‘specimen’ rock which took the combined strengths of John, Pete and self to get up the first part of the shaft. This rock is not the striped rock which has been so carefully guarded from assault by hammer wielding fanatics, and to get that out we will have to repeat the exercise all over again  but these rocks will do fine at the base of the Belfry Stone. By the close of play John had managed to loose or leave behind his helmet, light, gloves, changing mat and caving belt: there can’t be much of his kit left – if anybody finds a naked caver with a Charles 1st beard wandering wantonly on Priddy Green please return him to the Caine Hill diggers.

MAN HOURS SPENT OVER THE PAST 4 MONTHS TOTAL AROUND 143. With a further 346 bags reaching the surface it took the total  to 5 figures, yep, that’s 10,089 or over 150 tonnes. .Work continues, hopefully NOW with more pace.

__________________________________________________________________________________

St. Cuthbert’s Swallet:

The Curtains

From Kangy King


A Rescue in Swildon’s

By Bill Combley

Do not involve yourself in the affairs of Dragons!

(Or how the just how wrong the Swildon’s Short Round trip can go)

We were without our regular caving partner Steve as he was off “doing other things” on this particular Wednesday, so it was just the 2 of us (Tony and myself) – we had many plans in place, depending on just who turned up at the Belfry, but by 7pm it was still just the 2 of us, so we decided to venture into Swildon’s and have a go at the short round trip. I knew the route pretty well (but not well enough as events will tell).

We arrived at Priddy Green and rapidly kitted up, leaving an estimated time out (ETO) with my beloved down on the Isle of Wight. A.N. Other body turned up from S.B.S.S.  he asked us where we were going to which we replied “A Scrot about!” and duly set off across the fields.

Entering the cave was as usual, uneventful, as the water levels were particularly low. We rapidly made our way to the 20’ and set about rigging the ladder and descending. Continuing down the stream way, I found the turn off to the Short round trip (Tratman’s Temple). We burrowed our way through the mud sump – about 6 inches of water (I did explain to Tony how it’s not possible to back bail because of the nature of the cave) we meandered around finding the Double Troubles (no need to bail or set the siphons).

Its surprising that considering you’re away from the main stream way just how cold one can get passing the Double troubles, Tony and I have differing methods of passing water obstacles and I must grudgingly admit that his “laying flat on your back” method is far superior to my “scrabble through on my belly” one!

Passing the double troubles, we made our way to Birthday squeeze (best attempted on your back with helmet off) and shuffled through that, Tony managed it with a good deal of huffing, puffing and a fair bit of cussing!

Some-how at this point I got a bit stymied on the route and ended up towards Vicarage passage, We came to Vicarage pot, and I decided that this was obviously not the way on, I’d spotted a hole in the floor that looked as if it went down to the landing a little way back from Vicarage pot, and, as time was inexorably ticking away towards pub time we decided to use it to gain the Landing and stream way in Swildon’s 2.

I began to carefully descend said pot and was doing ok for the first few meters, gently easing my way down, with my back pressed against the wall and my feet and arms moving slowly, when all of a sudden Isaac Newton’s laws of gravity took a hold, net result I landed on the Landing with a crunch, “OH bugger, that’s broken my collarbone!” (I’m understating the pain and language used here), I sort of half slithered/fell into the stream way and took a few seconds to realise just where I was. Tony meanwhile had seen my fall and had gingerly followed me onto the landing.

Realising that we were now in a rescue situation we made a decision to get as far out of the cave as possible, I got Tony to re-rig my belt as a makeshift strap around my collarbone. Pain and adrenalin took over as we made our way upstream to sump 1. I had to get Tony to push my legs as I went through sump 1 and again he was a tower of strength aiding me over the rocks as we slowly made our way out of the cave.

Having gained Swildon’s 1, I knew what lay ahead in terms of obstacles, and was thinking to myself “Right, if we get above Tratman’s, MRO won’t have to search the short round!” – well, we achieved that aim and came to rest at the Inclined Rift. I parked myself out of the water and took off my elbow pads to sit on to insulate my bum and put on my hood to keep my inner core temperature up and stave off hypothermia. We did discuss the possibility of Tony returning to surface to raise the alarm, but, as Tony said, “I never bug out on my wingman!” so he stayed put.

I’d expected lights to appear from in front of us (the arrival of recue!) but we were both surprised to see lights coming from behind us, a party of 3 (SBSS) had also been on the short round, they stopped and we explained our situation, they then headed out to raise the alarm as well (by this time we were way beyond ETO, and were hoping that best beloved had done the right thing, apparently she thought we were in the pub enjoying a post caving pint), a second party of SBSS then appeared from behind us and stopped, fortunately one of the members of this party is a paramedic and had some basic 1st aid kit, namely painkillers and a space blanket. Dosed up with painkillers and wrapped in a space blanket we 5 sat and waited for the now inevitable rescue to arrive.

Lights appeared at the top of Barnes loop, Whoop! the cavalry, in the form of Mark Helmore, Rich Marlow and Sarah Payne, closely followed by Dany and Bob (Cork?). Rich gave me a quick once over whilst Dany and Sarah got the Heyphone set up. There was talk of what the 1st aid kits used to contain, as by this point both Tony and I were gasping for a fag (no longer in the first aid kit! -along with the medicinal brandy!) – Dany made some quip about “How’s about each time you want a fag, I smack you in the face.” To which my reply was “Ok then, I’ll wait until we’re out!” having ascertained the extent of my injuries and what pain relief had already been administered, Rich the team and myself decided that the stretcher was not an option “You’re not a time critical injury” seems to stick in my mind, Some Morphine was administered to me and my now useless arm was immobilised in a sling and we waited for that to take effect.

Caving on a cloud of morphine is wonderful, it takes away the pain, whilst leaving one with faculties enough to deal with the rest of the cave, I was put on a “donkey dick” rope and with assistance all round, got up the stal boss and through Barnes loop, actually the climb back into the stream way was relatively (or so it seemed to me by my now fuzzy mind) straight forward, a step here, a hand there, and down we go. Next a quick traverse round the double pots (I normally wade into the pots and climb straight up) and onto the twenty. At this point the full body harness was made available and with a few strong bods (cheers Stu and Mark) I flew up and was quickly out of the harness and onto the 8-foot waterfall, a few tugs and heaves and that was dealt with, before long we arrived at the penultimate obstacle – Jacobs Ladder, again soon disposed of and only the entrance to deal with. Normally I enter and exit the cave via the little rift to the right hand side of the entrance, but this time I went under that huge slab of hanging doom above the new hole in the floor that takes all the water.

We then trudged our way back across the fields to Priddy Green to rescue control, and for some at least, hot drinks and biscuits courtesy of the Prewers, I got a slurp of much welcome coffee, but alas no more “Oy, no more for you!” and cadged a fag off one of the rescue team, that was well earned; thanks young lad. By now the rest of the rescue team were emerging and depositing all the kit that had been taken over to aid me out (fortunately the “Little Dragon” and dreaded stretcher had not been used) and the troops made their weary ways home leaving me with Rich and Ali Moody to await the arrival of the ambulance.

The ambulance had been delayed on another call and when it did turn up, the crew were a little incredulous as to the events that had led them to Priddy Green in the early hours of the morning, even more so when I began to strip out of my caving grots, “Ere fellah, grab that sleeve and give it a tug will you?” even stopping to towel my feet off and change into civilised dry clothes, as Rich did his casualty hand over. Another dose of Morphine and a quick discussion about the best way to get to Weston General “Its your call Bath or Weston.”, “Well we’re pointing to Weston, Down the Gorge and I expect your sat nav will take you the rest of the way!” and off we went.

My heartfelt thanks to all who came to my rescue, there WILL be beer for all involved when I see you at the Hunters! I’ll close just there and not bore you all with what went on in the Casualty department.

Net result and lessons learned:

One broken right collarbone and no caving for a while.

Do not meddle in the affairs of dragons because you are crunchy and go well with ketchup.

Only your true friends will help you out of the pooh and will mercilessly take the mick whilst so doing.

ALWAYS leave a call out.

 


Renewed Digging Effort In St Cuthbert’s 

by Estelle Sandford

About 2 years ago I started actively looking for a new dig site in St Cuthbert’s. This had been driven by me noticing that some of the hydrology of the cave seemed to have been naturally changing over the last 10-15 years (I had been involved in collecting water samples for the hydrology article Roger Stenner had written in the 90s, so had been pretty intimate with this particular cave's water course and levels!). With many discussions over a few beers, a few of us had never been totally convinced the 'original' way on for the water in St Cuthbert’s was via sump 2. It had been noted the geology of the cave passage changes between sumps 1 and 2 and doesn't seem to look as 'old', plus, we had also been convinced that the area around Cerberus to Lake Chamber areas may hold some secrets. This was fuelled by the Lake seeming lower than I remembered it on several visits to the place in early 2009, before the sump actually opened (don’t remember it doing that at all in the 90s), and also the stream-way was sinking in two places above Stal Pitch, meaning there is little to no flow from there until Plantation Junction during the drier summer months.

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Estelle in Lower Rocky Boulder

I had taken a break from active caving for a few years due to injuries and other life stuff and, it had been a while since I’d last actively dug and caved in St Cuthbert’s, but it has always been somewhere that holds a lot of intrigue. I have always been convinced the cave has more to offer, plus not many people have actively dug in there for quite a few years, and ‘things change’, plus I love caving in that place! Two changes I initially noticed was that the stream-way was flowing consistently in an old dig site on the right hand wall on the bends above Stal Pitch, where historically it had sumped and, at this point, it was taking much of the main stream-way, rather than it going down the main stream passage where it should go, plus, some of the stream-way water was disappearing just below where Everest Passage joins the main stream. After encouraging it back down its traditional route, Mark Denning and myself decided to go and have a dig there initially and, soon decided it was best attacked from the other side in what is marked on the survey as Cerberus Pool, although these days it is more of a mud bath! Instructing Mark to stay somewhere safe as a just in case measure, I went underneath some very dodgy looking boulders and through a squeeze, and then we had a voice connection to a smallish hole just below the plaques in Cerberus Hall. We dug this out enough for me to exit that way and, for Mark to also have a look; this inspired us to have a go at the dig site below.

I recruited a few keen BEC diggers and we attacked the dig site from the newly widened hole just below where the plaques are. This was dug downwards through what appeared to be a mud filled dodgy boulder ruckle to about 30ft. deep, before the winter rains made digging impossible. All the spoil was brought up into Cerberus Hall and deposited in the top of where Cerberus Pool was. Historically with the hole below the plaques, I had remembered looking down to water not far below, and while in the winter there was still a water level in there, this was a lot lower than I remembered. This dig was resurrected briefly in 2010, but after the winter rains had given the site a good soaking, some of the boulders were looking seriously undermined and we decided that other sites had more potential, so we picked up our digging kit and relocated it elsewhere!

We had also been keeping an eye on Lake Chamber over the summer months with regular visits and finally, in early September 2009, we noticed that the sump to Lake Chamber Extensions was open. A dive line that had been in there for probably about 15 years (put in by Jingles mid 90s) was climbed out of the water the other side (the tibloc is a wonderful invention!) into a quite muddy section of cave (Lake Chamber Extensions), which is rarely visited because of the Lake Chamber sump. We explored, and then for about a month until the sump closed again, we worked on two sites – one which was a beautifully scalloped mud filled phreatic tube and another widening a heavily draughting rift. The rift was probably the most inspiring dig we had seen for a long time, but without taking up diving to continue working on it, there was no choice but to wait and hope for the water levels to drop far enough for us to be able to pass the sump again during 2010.

Another area of interest is where during the drier summer months of the last two years, all of the main stream sinks into the gravel floor below where Everest Passage joins main stream passage leaving the main stream route dry until Plantation Junction where Plantation stream joins the main passage. While not proven as yet, we think there is a link between this and Lake Chamber, but we felt that when the entire main stream sinks here, if all the water was running to Lake Chamber, that Lake Chamber ought to be a lot higher than it tends to be – the Lake Chamber sump opening in the summer months seems to be a more recent phenomenon, as while it was reported to have done so in the past, it certainly wasn’t a regular event. We had a go at digging this stream sink briefly, but the call of Lake Chamber Extensions kept us away, so this is another dig in progress as well, which hopefully we’ll return to in 2011 including once it starts sinking here again, to conduct a dye (or spores) trace to see if any of this water appears again before sump 2 and Lake Chamber.

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Estelle In Lake Chamber Extension

Spring 2010; with all our other dig sites in Cuthbert’s full of water, we started looking again for a new site; a tight rift between Cerberus Hall and Mud Hall Chamber was observed – nicknamed Project Pebble. This draughts very well, and widening of the passage was required to make it passable, but it is at least an all-weather dig even though initially it was only a 2 person dig! After a couple of months of widening the initial rift passage, Stu and I managed to squeeze past the first constriction and into a very muddy dig and finally turn it into a 3 person dig – so Sally joined us for a few digging sessions as we needed a small skinny person! Initially this followed a phreatic tube, but with continued digging out the mud, it seems to now be going downwards again in rift type passage and is still draughting well and, heading into blank space on the survey, but needs widening with plug and feathers. Fingers crossed, this will be a case of watch this space at some stage…

By July 2010, the sump was low enough for digging in Lake Chamber Extensions to resume and, in August on Henry’s birthday, the rift was finally widened enough using plug & feathers to be able to pass through. By now the mud tube tunnelling dig had split into two directions, and the left hand of the two digs was approximately 10ft long – it was a great way of keeping warm as widening the rift was a 1 person job, although the air was often nothing special in these tubes! After Stu had successfully widened the rift to get into a small chamber with a couple of potentially going leads, Mark and Stu relocated a couple of dodgy looking boulders, and this exposed a narrow slope, which we followed into a large chamber. Henry and I joined them and the four diggers were briefly elated on finding a large chamber with what looked like lots of ways on, until finding some footprints on the other side of the chamber, and then also some initials (which looked like they possibly spelt WIG!). It wasn’t immediately apparent which bit of the cave had been dug into, as the survey had not indicated to us, to be that close to anything. So the following week, we sent a team around the slabs/long chamber/rocky boulder side of the cave and, another team through the breakthrough, all armed with whistles and we soon bumped into each other at chockstone rift, confirming we had found our way into Lower Rocky Boulder Chamber.

We have since surveyed this loop, and with the assistance of Mad Phil who already has quite a lot of Cuthbert’s survey data recorded electronically, we have added it into his survey information. What it showed, is that the original survey of Lower Rocky Boulder series appears to be out by around 5m or so, which does make us feel a bit better, as from the survey, we didn’t feel we ought to have been that close to Rocky Boulder series! What it also proves is that it would be good to continue with resurveying Cuthbert’s to have the whole cave as a digital survey which is a project Mad Phil already had been working on, so if you’re keen to do some surveying in there, contact Mad Phil!

While making the connection wasn’t what we had wanted, it does open up opportunities to investigate Lake Chamber Extensions, once Lake Chamber has filled with water as there are a couple of possibilities there, and we intend to visit this part of the cave in wet conditions over the winter months, to see how much water Lake Chamber Extensions and the floor rifts hold. We also have a couple of other dig sites of interest to keep us going, so watch this space!

Core digging team: Estelle Sandford, Stu Gardiner, Mark Denning and Henry Dawson.

Additional diggers: Pete Hellier, Vern Freeman, Sally White, Paul Brock, Bill Combley, Mad Fi, Faye Litherland, Jo Hardy, Jake Baines, Mark Stephens, Rich Bayfield, Rich Smith, Ben O’Leary, Kangy King, Gary Kiely, Annie Audsley, Roger Galloway.

 



Don Coase. St Cuthbert’s original entrance. Photo: Kangy King

 
BB542-23

 


Lex Bastian (W A S S )

From Mike Wilson

Tony Jarratts double.                                                                                

BB542-24When I visited Western Australia in 2000 I had the good fortune to meet a quiet Australian caver called Lex Bastian ,sadly I did not manage to spend a great deal of time with him, and even more unfortunate was the fact that I ran out of time before I could go caving with him. Having said that, he is a fascinating man who has spent the last 50 years caving in Western Australia  mostly in the Yanchep and Margaret River areas.

His family emigrated to Australia 130 years ago from Cornwall. He said it was a big group decision, so I guess the whole family came over en mass and settled in WA. As far as I know there are no relatives in Great Britain. He now lives to the North of Perth in a town called Beldon. There was a gap in his caving activities when he spent 8 years in Canberra during the 1970s, he didn’t tell me what he was doing there!

In the 1950s Lex, his mate Ross and a guy called Lloyd Robinson were the mainstay of caving in WA. He used to travel to the caves on a pushbike (shades of Norbert Casteret in France ) The majority of caves in the Yanchep region have been discovered by Lex,  there are approximately 400 to date. The inventory was started in 1988, and the original list contained approximately 100 caves, all numbered. To quote Lex, ‘it would be impossible to name every cave discovered’ (all of the caves open to tourists are named) .A 1967 Ford Falcon station wagon became the mainstay of transport for Lex during his travels, by all accounts a very reliable vehicle, this enabled him to travel to the South more often and practise his Aussie method of cave discovery, (it differs from Tony Jarratts theory of cave trees in the middle of a Yorkshire Moor)  this is called the Hairy Leg method, whereby you wear shorts and walk around the bush waiting for a draught on the thigh, according to Lex it is extremely effective !!! The other method is to wait for bush fires, ”quite common“ and go and look for the holes, this sounds like a good technique on the Yorkshire moors !  Their underground cooking methods involved a compound called “Scroggle,” a typical Lex type recipe, you mix cocoa, raisins, nuts, and cooking chocolate. This concoction is then heated over a carbide lamp, I intend to try this recipe some time. Naturally, they also drank cheap wine and told tall stories ,nothing changes!!.                                                                                

  Geoff  Robinson, a fellow caver was renowned for kicking at dangerous Aussie snakes whilst wearing sandals, not to be  recommended!!! Lex and Lloyd met up and found Easter cave in 1958, the entrance being a dug tunnel, what a stunning find that must have been,!!!!!! It still rates as one of the best decorated caves in Australia, I have had the privilege of entering this cave and it is literally wall to wall formations! While I was talking to Lex one evening he drew a little map of the entrance section of this cave and while I did not realise the significance at the time, it shows a small left turn and a shawl formation with writing on it, “Jamey Donovan-Jesse Ward 1884”, this indicates that the cave had been visited and then possibly forgotten, luckily.!

The Western Australia Speleo Society was formed by Naturists (not to be confused with naturalists) in the 1960s. The aim was to educate and promote awareness of the natural world to the public, some of the cavers were honorary fauna wardens of the Margaret River area, including the Naturaliste National Park, this involved wearing a little badge, and writing a quarterly report listing people warned, animals seen and approximate location. This does not equate with their tales of throwing boomerangs across the road to see if it would miss the traffic and return!! Hut 1 burned down in one of the frequent bush fires, so hut 2 was born. A band practice hut from Freemantle was donated to the club, so the lads went down to Freo and literally cut it up with a chainsaw, then transported it down to Margaret River in 1971. They hot-wired a nearby front loader and pulled up some spare railway sleepers from the local sawmill, these formed the outer base for the hut, water from a local cave was used for cement mixing (a slow process), there are some photos showing the builders Ian Martin, Alex Jar, Bob Crowe, and Ric Orissa. There were two ends to the hut; boys and girls. I have it on good authority that this situation lasted about 1 hour!! there was never any water supply or sanitation, and this situation still applies in hut 3, year 2000.  Hut 2 burnt down in another bush fire in the1980s,”       I WONDER IF IT HAD ANYTHING TO DO WITH LEX BASTIANS BURNING BUSH THEORIES”, but  the new metal structure hut 3 still stands, a trifle noisy at night when the local fauna decide to run up and down the roof with hobnail boots on!! WASS are at the present trying to negotiate a new site for the hut,  just outside the National Park, which will make their tenancy in the area more stable (and not subject to the tricky park regulations). I wish them well in their endeavours, and hope that the new venture includes water and sanitation. If they require any help I will be happy to go over for a month or two and lend a hand!!                    

Some of the problems with the water table dropping in the region have been attributed by Lex Bastian, to be caused by the fact that there is no annual bush burns, apparently the ridges used to burn every summer (an aborigine method to clear the bush), but colonisation has now opened the forests for cattle allowing higher vegetation growth, this draws more underground water thus lowering the water table!!! This has had the permanent effect of opening up more routes underground, but also some of the gour pools are drying out and may never be beautiful again. It is quite apparent where the original water table level was by just observing the staining of the formations at the now new floor level; the difference is substantial !!

 


 

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What kind of topic would you like to see in your BB? Please send your ideas to the editor for consideration. If you know of someone who can write an article on exploration or science, ask him or her to put pen to paper and get writing! Remember this: we are an exploration club, not just a caving club.

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Please, please send me something amusing for the Tale Piece.


Reservoir Hole

by Pete Glanvill

Since the most recent update there have been developments. At Potter’s Heaven, Tangent and Andrew Atkinson found the Hollow virtually sumped whilst on a survey trip (Andrew is still trying to get mud out of his Disto and PDA), so we have crossed it off our dig list for the winter. Up at Topless Aven more boulders have been removed but the pool obstinately refuses to drain. Meanwhile Nigel and Nick’s team (‘We’ll be in in 2 weeks’) have made a breakthrough this week (November 15th ) after 6 months effort at the Silo. A guest appearance by Martin Grass and a lack of cameras to record the event might have been the lucky charms required for it to happen.  An audible echo could be heard the previous week but some large and obstinate boulders and massive amounts of gravel slurry needed removing before the team managed to wriggle up into the void beyond.  Ali and I returned from Topless Aven to meet a mildly despondent team who thought it was a dead end. However it transpired they had just squinted through.

I followed Alison up and she (bravely or insanely) climbed into the void bracing herself on the few remaining boulders. As I was under said boulders I didn’t stay long and, as it was, she got clocked on the shoulder by a falling pebble. What we saw, and this is a conflation of our opinions was an elliptical rift about 2 metres across with  pronounced water horizontal nick marks on the walls plus scalloping. The roof at the near end seems fairly solid but there is some hanging death at the far end. The height of the rift is probably around 8 metres. At the north end (ie into the opposite side of the gorge) fill seems to be occupying a ceiling to floor continuation that must be wider at its base (still obscured by fill). Some water drips from the roof but most is coming out of the fill low down suggesting it comes from the rift beyond. The place is very airy – not so say scary.  We think the far end is now across the road – thank god!

It didn’t stay open for long as attempts by Nigel to bring down the remaining boulders blocked the opening again but next week should allow them to be removed. The plan then,  is to use scaffolding already imported into the cave to build a 2 metre high cage at the entrance to the silo to, we hope, protect the diggers whilst we advance across the rift.

Peter Glanvill  November 17th 2011

 


Pete Goes Down Upper Flood

By Pete Hellier

After not being free for the club trip, a number of emails saw me at the MCG hut on an icy Novembers day.

A brisk walk over was followed by an interesting time getting the bolt under the lid to undo in the freezing conditions. The inside was quite balmy, not least because I had added an extra layer of underwear beneath my furry suit and normal base layer. By the time we had got to the static duck we were all rather hot, and I realised I had forgotten how small the cave passage was and all the obstacles. The duck was not too high (glasses stayed well out of the water), and the stream not in full winter flow yet. Hoods were removed at the red room, and drinks taken before we dived into the boulder ruckle to Golden Chamber, with not-to-be-missed crystals immediately inside the chamber. A drop and narrow rift rejoins the streamway, but not for long as the main boulder choke and succession of squeezes and manoeuvres are encountered.

BB542-25I can’t remember the sequence or which ones need to have a head or foot first approach, as this can be important. The worse pinch-points have been enlarged since the early trips, and now accommodate ‘most’ cavers. I didn’t find them particularly tight, but they were awkward, particularly on the return. The helpful hints I had could be most welcome. I only had one rock collapse on me on the return, and it wasn’t really as big as it felt.

After all that it was good to get into proper passage – must have been mind-blowing for the original explorers. Even after seeing all the photos it was a bit of a shock. The Departure Lounge narrows to stream passage, and this is probably the nicest passage down to Walk The Plank with the present stream running under or beside a lot of stalled up boulders. At the unusual stalled up rock formation known as Walk The Plank what appears as fossil passage is reached in a dark chamber. The dark colouring is thought to come from the lead tailings, and the area is the favoured connection point for Stainsby's shaft.

Plenty more stream passage with the odd short crawl in the water until the stream is lost. This length of passage was all explored in the first trip which must be one of the longest stretches of open Mendip cave explored in one go. (There’s a theme for the Belfryites to discuss!)

After a very short traverse and little scramble the cave suddenly changes with a number of routes in different directions. East passage is like South Wales fossil phreatic passage without formations where we took a mini-circuit to see Zebra Aven, and then return. Ahead and up a few feet over stal is more stal to look at, and the entrance to South Passage which is a crawl. To the right there is (You’ve guessed) West Passage. An odd move over a stal covered block and we were in an area of lovely clean stal with superb little formations. I guessed quickly that the stal and crystal covered passage to our left was the no-go zone heading for the fabulous pork pie formations - Neverland. I guess I would have liked to take oversuit and boots off and been given the chance to see them - no point having them if you can’t see them! But the idea is to find another way into Neverland, so that they can then be viewed from the other side. Maybe.

West Passage has a different character again, being essentially a straight passage with a dog-leg to the left and back, about halfway. The first feature is Chuckle Choke, which having been dug (and the site of one of J’rat’s last bangs) drops to a loud but totally impassable stream. At least the crawling here was easy over fine silt and clay. We played games feeling a good draught in some places, and not others. The end lies at a boulder choke so anything is possible. We had a token removal of boulders-that-were-in-the-way session as a precursor to planned large banging session. There are quite a number of dig sites, but none are looking easy.

By the time we got back to the Boulder Choke I had already forgotten how many awkward moves there were, and I finished with dead arms. Given the shallow gradient and lack of any pitches, that’s quite an achievement which I put down in part to fighting against all the clothing on my arms, like a when you have a full wetsuit. There did seem to be an awful lot of crawling in the old cave (aka ‘the entrance series’), and I still have sore knees days later.

Just to round the trip off nicely engineering tactics were again needed on the entrance, and we had a rather chilly walk back in minus something. Splendid trip of course, but not to be taken lightly, and I was glad of my snacks. As for kit, I was not over-dressed, and once soaked never overheated. The others wore neofleeces with the leader having a fleece on top including balaclava - he should know!


Whitcombe's Hole

By Vince Simmonds

An archaeological investigation of Whitcombe’s Hole, Burrington Combe: a summary report of the 2011 field work.

Introduction

The excavation at Whitcombe’s Hole involves an investigation of the cave sediments for evidence of any possible human use of Whitcombe’s Hole and whether any indicators of past environmental conditions occurring in the Burrington Combe area can be found at the site.

Permission to dig at the site was granted by the landowner, Sir David Wills on 29th March 2011, subject to a number of conditions, the present permission is to extend to the end of November 2011.

Whitcombe’s Hole is located in Burrington Combe at NGR ST 47635827.  The site has previously been excavated in c.1860 by William Boyd-Dawkins who recovered an unornamented blackware urn that was attributed to the Early Iron Age along with various bones and teeth attributed ox, deer, goat, wolf, fox, badger, rabbit, hare and birds (Sanford and Boyd-Dawkins, 1864, p.169).  A recent visit to the cave appears to indicate that there has been little disturbance of the cave sediments since that time. 

Balch (1937) in his publication – Mendip: Its Swallet Caves and Rock Shelters described Whitcombe’s Hole as an old outlet cave or as a passage that once fed into Aveline’s Hole.  He makes reference to the excavation work at the site by Boyd-Dawkins stating that very little debris was removed and that a complete excavation was not carried out.  Balch adds “there is some deposit on the floor, which will repay excavation” (p.89).

Whitcombe’s Hole is situated at the northern end of a ridge of high ground formed by three valleys; West Twin Brook and East Twin Brook are on either side of the ridge and the cave overlooks Burrington Combe on the northern side.  Both the West and East Twin Brook valley’s run south onto the higher ground of Blackdown, the lower reaches of Burrington Combe have a north-south alignment before heading sharply to the east at the promontory where Whitcombe’s Hole is located.  All of these valleys may have been used as corridors to gain access to the higher Mendip Plateau perhaps to hunt grazing herds at particular seasons. 

To the southwest of Whitcombe’s Hole is found Goatchurch Cavern at a similar altitude overlooking West Twin Brook, north of Whitcombe’s Hole is Aveline’s Hole at the valley bottom of Burrington Combe.

Geology

According to the geological map (BGS: Sheet 280) of the area the site is within the Black Rock Limestone of Carboniferous Age, the strata here has an inclination dipping 60O to the north-northeast.  To the south the strata comprises Lower Limestone Shale, to the north is a small outcrop of Dolomite then Burrington Oolite, these strata are also of Carboniferous Age.  These limestone strata together represent the lower part of the Dinantian sequence.  To the west of the site is an outcrop of Dolomitic Conglomerate of Triassic Age, this particular rock type features as interdigitations along both the northern and southern flanks of the Mendip Hills.

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Figure 1.  Looking into the ‘daylight’ zone of Whitcombe’s Hole, Burrington Combe

Excavation of the ‘daylight’ zone.

Work at the site commenced during April 2011 when a survey of the cave was conducted and photographs of the site were taken.  Following this it was decided that the first task was to investigate the entrance chamber, the ‘daylight’ zone. 

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Figure 2. Cave survey with the approximate areas of excavation conducted within the ‘daylight’ zone shown.

Trench 1: initially the area was thoroughly brushed clean of surface material that comprised mostly moss, leaves, sticks and frequent coarse angular to sub-angular gravel and cobbles of limestone with very rare slate.  There were some fragments of glass and an empty bottle [flagon] that possibly once contained cider and has been attributed to circa 1960s – 1970s.  Some recent animal bones had been noted on the surface during a previous site visit.  As the excavation proceeded the soil removed is described as fairly dry, non-cohesive/non-plastic brown silt/clay with high organic content including abundant root growth and earthworms.  The few finds in these early stages included bone fragments, acorn shells and black decayed wood.  With increasing depth the soil became slightly more cohesive and moist, there appeared pockets of lighter orangey-brown to brown-red clay and yellow-brown, possibly ochreous material (cave earth).  The organic content did not diminish and the extensive root growth and movement of earthworms appeared to have caused considerable mixing of the sediments.  Clearance of the soils revealed limestone bedrock forming the cave floor.

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Figure 3. Trenches 1 and 2 of the 'daylight' zone after excavation.

Trench 3: is located to the rear of the ‘daylight’ zone and could be said to lie within a transitional area between light and increasingly dark zones. Trench 2: was a forward extension of Trench 1 and the soil, similarly, comprised of dry, non-cohesive/non-plastic brown silt/clay with coarse angular to sub-angular gravel and cobbles of mainly limestone with occasional sandstone, also abundant organic content (roots and rootlets) and earthworms.  It has a thickness of 25mm to 100mm and overlies the continuation the limestone bedrock floor.  There were no finds of note and it is likely that these sediments represent more recent, probably wind-borne material as they are relatively close to the cave entrance/exit.

The surface layer of this Trench consisted loose coarse angular to sub-rounded gravel and cobbles of mainly limestone with occasional red sandstone and some now degraded flowstone material.  Below this a red-brown silt/clay with fine to coarse angular to rounded gravel of mainly limestone and occasional sandstone.  There was a pocket of blackened coarse rounded gravel with a number of blackened bone fragments and teeth.  The black coating is possibly due to manganese.  

The organic content remained high and included root growth up to 15mm in diameter and much bioturbation caused by earthworms.

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Figure 4. Some of the blackened bones and teeth from the rear of the ‘daylight’ zone.

The soil became a mixture of brown organic soil and pockets of light red-brown silt/clay with frequent fine to coarse angular to sub-rounded gravel of limestone, sandstone, calcite and quartz pebbles.  The brown organic soil is non-cohesive/non-plastic.  There were more faunal remains recovered mostly bone fragments and teeth, rather disappointingly broken glass was also uncovered, it was from this location that a single flint flake was found.

The soil continued to be a mix of brown organic soil and red-brown silt/clay with gravel and cobbles as described above.  Throughout this Trench were frequent finds of black decayed wood with rare small lumps of charcoal.  With depth the light red-brown silt/clay became more frequent and this material has been described as ‘cave earth’.  Even with increasing depth shards of broken glass were still appearing among the other finds that consisted mostly of small mammal bones.  These mixed soils were found to be overlying yellow (ochreous) sandy clay with abundant medium and coarse sub-rounded to rounded gravel of mostly red sandstone with some infrequent quartz and limestone.

 BB542-15

 BB542-17

Figure 5. The single flint flake recovered from the rear of the ‘daylight’ zone.

Discussion

The single flint flake (pictured above) has been compared to a collection of flint on public display in the Balch room at Wells Museum and bears some similarities to those flint flakes attributed to the Mesolithic period.  It should be noted that a single flake recovered from Whitcombe’s Hole might be a residual find and does not, at this stage represent any evidence of occupation.  It is hoped that further excavation within the cave might reveal more finds of this type and provide more information leading to a better interpretation of the site.

     The faunal remains recovered mostly consisted of bone fragments and teeth that initially appear to fall into two categories, those stained black (possibly due to manganese, as mentioned previously) and paler bones.  The blackened bones and teeth appear to be from a pocket that had rounded gravel (pebbles) and included a relatively large canine tooth from badger or fox and teeth might originate from domesticates perhaps sheep/goat.  On average the blackened bones appear to slightly larger than the paler bones.  Some initial identification of the bones and teeth has been carried out and more work is required on further identification of the bones and species types.

There are some anomalies, for example, in all trenches a black material was found, as yet unidentified that adhered to the bedrock and cobbles and also present as lumps.  In a flotation experiment this material sank, whereas carbonized wood/charcoal floated.  This material requires further consideration before an interpretation is possible.

There has been a quantity of broken glass found during the excavation of the ‘daylight’ zone and this is most likely due to prolific root growth, bioturbation and the result of other mechanical means most likely excavation.  When the disturbed mixed layers were excavated to reveal the cave sediment layer it was apparent that passing through the cave sediment layer was a ‘cut’ line and this is has been interpreted by the author as representing the line of a previous excavation possibly that of Boyd-Dawkins original 1860s dig . 

BB542-29

Figure 6. Some of the paler bones recovered from the rear of the ‘daylight’ zone, mostly of small mammals.

This report presents a preliminary summary of the field work; the evidence collected to date remains inconclusive and further work will be required.  The disturbed sediments are unlikely to provide any tangible evidence so sieving is not believed to be warranted at this stage.  It is thought that the further investigation of the site might reveal undisturbed sediments that will provide some context and possibly the recovery of more diagnostic artefacts and other evidence and enable an interpretation of Whitcombe’s Hole.

Brown organic soil withgravel

Line of previous excavation

Yellow (ochreous) cave earth

Figure 7. The finished excavation showing the boundary between the organic soil and cave earth. The line of previous excavation is also evident.

Throughout the excavation in addition to field notes and sketches, a photographic record has been maintained.  In addition to the images used in this report there is a gallery containing more photographs of the excavation that can be accessed via the website: www.mendipgeoarch.net

References

Balch, H.E.  1937.  Mendip – Its Swallet Caves and Rock Shelters.  Second Edition 1948.  p 89.  John Wright and Sons Ltd. Bristol.

Boyd-Dawkins, W. 1874.  Cave Hunting. pp 140-141

Barrington, N. and Stanton, W.  1977.  Mendip: the complete caves and a view of the hills.  Cheddar Valley Press.

British Geological Survey, 1978.  Geological Maps of England and Wales, 1: 50 000 Series, Wells, Sheet 280 – Solid and Drift Edition.  Natural Environment Research Council.

Ordnance Survey, 2004.  Explorer Map, 1:25 000, Cheddar Gorge & Mendip Hills West: Wells and Glastonbury, Sheet 141.  Ordnance Survey, Southampton.

Sanford, W.A. and Boyd Dawkins, W.  On the Caverns of Burrington Combe in Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society Proceedings, Volume 12 (1863 – 1864) pp.161-176.

 


Last of the Summer Ale – The Sequel                                            

by Paul Christie

As promised in the last tale of the Last of the Summer Ale (LotSA) the identities of the people in the photograph are from left to right Steve Woolven (Foggy), Gary Cullen (Compo), Paul Christie (Clegg), Paul Stokes, Bruce Glockling, Karen Lumley and Graham Nye. Although a few of this group are still active cavers they were all active at some point in the 70’s & 80’s. The photo was taken in Weardale on Royal Wedding weekend.

The trip to Weardale was planned to coincide with Paul Stokes 60th birthday. We tried to include all of the original team on this weekend but the two notable missing people are Ross White and Jerry Crick who were otherwise engaged. The reason for choosing Weardale was that it is close to where Paul now lives. After years of indulging in dangerous sports of several types, he is now disabled, so it seemed an appropriate location. It was also an area that most of us hadn’t previously explored. We travelled on the Friday and some of us met up at High Force (Teesdale), where one or two people passed themselves off as senior citizens to see the waterfall for free. We then drove over the hills to Weardale and our accommodation in Frosterley. By early evening we were all settled and ready for the first excursion to the Pub so we crossed the river to The Black Bull that only weeks before had been featured on ITV’s Countrywise.

BB542-30Saturday morning started with the usual hearty breakfast and a debate about what walk we were going to do. Clegg had spent weeks planning a number of routes and conveniently the map and compass brigade had turned up with two entirely different maps of the area showing two variations of the Weardale Way. It’s one thing organising a walk when there are three of you, it’s an entirely different matter when there are 14, especially with this crew. Our first stop became the tourist information centre at Stanhope to establish the current Weardale Way route.

Now we knew where we were going, we headed for Rookhope where a pub would be the ideal stop for lunch. The early part of the walk is along the river bank so we’re all happily walking at different speeds. At the first sign of uphill walking there is the usual disquiet over Clegg’s skill with a satnav but we eventually made it to the pub. After a few pints the group headed back down the river to Easthope and on to Stanhope. As Foggy entered the car park in Stanhope, Compo whispered in Clegg’s ear to ask Foggy where his map was. This he did, and stood expecting the map to appear magically from Foggy’s rucksack. There followed an embarrassing silence and an admission by Foggy that he’d mislaid it on the route from the pub, probably in the river.

Saturday evening was spent in the Black Bull as you’d expect, and Sunday morning dawned with everyone fit for another days walking. Foggy, having lost his map, was in no position to debate what walk to do and  what Clegg had planned had something to suit everyone. Stanhope to Wolsingham (14 miles for the fit ones) with an optional get out at 8 miles back to Frosterley for everyone else. Clegg had even worked out that those that completed the walk could get the train back from Wolsingham so there was no need to put a car there. Read on there’s a ‘gotcha’ coming up.

The route heads east along the river for a while and then climbs away from the river and round some old quarry workings. We then drop down to the river level again and according to the OS map there are some caves in this area. If Foggy hadn’t lost his map I expect he would have tried to find them. Once back close to the river those opting for the short walk headed back into Frosterley with the intention of finding a pub. They found a pub without a problem, what they didn’t find was any beer, unless you count Guinness. Undeterred by the lack of Real Ale they managed to while away a fair amount of time.

Meanwhile, an intrepid group of five had gained height on the side of the valley and had passed close to a feature known locally as Elephant Trees. It’s a group of trees together on the top of the hill that in silhouette look like an elephant. Clegg struggled up this hill but once at the top he sprouted a new set of legs and headed off at speed towards Wolsingham. The railway station was easily located and the train timetable examined. The last train of the day apparently doesn’t stop at all stations. Which significant one does it not stop at? Wolsingham, I told you there was a ‘gotcha’ coming. It was too far to road walk so a quick phone call to the others was made and this was when we discovered exactly how much time they had spent either drinking Guinness or finding an alternative pub. Two cars duly arrived and we were returned to Frosterley.

The Black Bull is closed on Sunday so we had a barbecue that everyone helped to prepare. Monday morning would normally have seen us packing up and heading home as early as we could but there was one last treat in store. Because it was a Bank Holiday the landlord of the Black Bull was opening the pub and his group the Charwaller’s set up in the car park to entertain us with some fine Rhythm & Blues. A fitting end to a fantastic weekend with no sign of what some might regard as normal bank holiday weather.

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Cartoon and map are the work of Rich Saunders as was the case in the last article. I’m sure he’d be open to other commissions and he can be contacted via Paul Christie.

 

 


Back cover

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Gornergletscher, in the glacier's moulins. Monte Rosa Massif, Switzerland.   From: Henry Patton