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200+ Kilometres and Ongoing!

by Tony Jarratt and Annie Audsley

" India ... it seems that there will be no caves on a world scale nor any karst features of outstanding significance. "

The Underground Atlas - Middleton & Waltham, 1986

This year's annual expedition to NE India was once again efficiently organized in the UK by Simon Brooks - even though he was unable to join the team, being demoted to the China Caves Project.  Our man on the spot, Brian Kharpran Daly, did his usual splendid job of sorting out the Meghalayan side of the trip.  The BEC was represented by Annie Audsley (on a break from a year's festering in New Zealand) Dr. Tony Boycott and your scribe.  Cavers from seven different countries, or ten if you count Wales, Scotland and Schwabia, converged on the hill state of Meghalaya at the beginning of February for several weeks of exploration, surveying and beer consumption.  It was unfortunate this year that we hadn't all bought shares in the Indian bog roll industry as great fortunes would have been made!

 

The first week saw two teams at work in the Garo Hills of western Meghalaya and the Cherrapunjee/Laitkynsew area of the East Khasi Hills - two hour's drive SSW of the capital, Shillong.  The Garo team had well over a day's rough drive to reach their patch, to find that food and accommodation were basic to say the least.  Over to Annie ...

It was a select team of Mark, Daniel, Peter, Lindsay, Jorg, Annie, the driver, Bud and his assistant who found ourselves in the tiny village of Asakgre following two days of rattling jeep ride, sharing a late night feast of boiled potatoes and eggs around the campfire.  We had come to recce a new area in the West Garo Hills and were now wondering what this place, hidden deep in the jungle at the very end of an old Shaktiman track, would reveal.  The next day the crowd of curious villagers who gathered around the dilapidated government Inspection Bungalow (IB) where we were staying, told us that there were indeed many caves within walking distance of the village (good start!).  The local people proved to be incredibly helpful and generous; the headman, BIen Marak, and his two brothers, Erok and Hellindro, offered to act as guides and we recruited two others to cook for us.  Throughout our stay there were always people around, bringing cooking pots, or offering such things as bananas or a remedy for a sick stomach (honey and rum - yum), or just sitting around the fire while we overcame the language barrier with bottles of beer and port.  For all of this they refused any payment; they were fantastic people.

The area around the village was one of low-lying, thickly jungled limestone hills with stream caves developing horizontally, and frequently with a maze-like confusion of criss-crossing side pasages.  Blen and his brothers showed us several small caves which they had themselves exploredfully with the aid of smoking torches. They were intrigued to come back in with us to see the passages more clearly with electric light.  These caves were surveyed quickly by us splitting into two teams and things got particularly exciting when we had to drag Mark away from surveying the lower reaches of Mendi, whish were lacking in oxygen, and when Daniel found some mermaids (?) in the streamway of Kimrang.

More extensive than these was Kholjong Cave, with a stream the size of which led Mark and Daniel to conjecture about the "longest cave in India" ... and a mass of small, dry side passages. We had fun ''finishing off' upstream; the passage which must soon close down, opening and branching into a series of deep canals and big, dry side passages.  Kholjong didn't prove to be India's longest cave however and was finished off by the time we left at 2.108 km.

Danged was the largest cave which our guides knew of and had an impressive entrance at the base of a cliff which led into a large streamway. Mark, Jorg and I set off down a canyon which branched off the main stream and soon emerged into a vast, square passage, dominated by the ''fallen megafreighter" boulder, and increasingly thick with bats.  Thousands of them flitted out past us like big furry fairies (or something).  We drew and photographed them for the record and continued onward over slimy, smelly boulders and a trickle of stream. Daniel's disembodied voice ahead led us to think that we were coming back round to the main stream but we never met up with the other team who had been stopped in their tracks at the head of two waterfalls which fell into the bat passage.  The stream disappeared into what may be ongoing (grovelly) passage and so we climbed up instead into a series of large, round and sparkly chambers but had to turn round before reaching a conclusion.  We emerged from the cave to find the guides very nervous and keen to get away, having heard wild elephants nearby.  We heard them again on the walk back but were disappointed (and Blen was relieved) not to see any.

After each day's caving we returned along jungle tracks and through the village.  My mind was considerably more blown on the first day by the sight of this settlement than it had been by running along through virgin passage underground.  Bamboo huts stood in the red earth with the occasional palm tree and dogs, pigs, goats and children ran loose among them.  On the edge of the village was a wooden festival house, carved and painted with human figures, snakes and tigers and which everyone but me (being a girl) was allowed to enter and have a look around. This was a place almost entirely untouched by the West and it was not really surprising that the children stared curiously at the aliens who had arrived in their midst with strange clothes and lights on their heads!

After four days in the Garo Hills half the team left for Shillong. Mark (to organize the new arrivals from Europe) Jorg (for rest, recuperation and a comfortable toilet) and Peter (who wanted a helicopter ride) headed for Tura and a much shorter journey to Shillong in the chopper.  Lindsay also went to Tura to get vital supplies of more port leaving Daniel and I to a much needed washing day.  The next couple of days were spent tying up loose ends and on our last day in the area Blen and his brothers took us on a long walking trip to look at various new cave entrances, a lake, some trout ("Walk quietly - there are big fish."), but sadly still no elephants.  We headed back to the IB early for our last meal of potatoes, rice and dhal and then said goodbye, leaving gifts of rum and Leathermans for the guides and promising to return next year.  We climbed back into the jeep, which by now had no shock absorbers and a failing clutch, and set off on the long, and even bumpier than before, journey to Shillong.  This was partly compensated for by the fact that I did finally see an elephant on the way back.

Your scribe, being on the "Cherra Team" was forced to stay at our friend Denis Rayen's Cherra Tourist Resort - base for last year's BEC team and overall superb spot overlooking the jungle covered escarpments of southern Meghalaya and the vast flood plains of Bangladesh below.  Our first evening was spent watching a very poor bootleg CD of "Pearl Harbor" and getting about one hour's sleep due to atrocious high volume pop music and singing emanating from the adjacent Laitkynsew village annual all night party.

Feb. 6th and 7th saw a ten person team surveying, exploring, photographing and bat studying in the Krem Soh Shympi/Rumdan system - partly explored but not mapped by last year's BEC team.  This impressive horizontal cave eventually yielded 1.428km of generally large and bat infested fossil passages but a nasty, low active streamway below was only partially surveyed and showed little promise of improving. It was while lying flat out in this particularly flood prone spot that we decided a whip round was needed to purchase new spectacles for Rob Harper and to ignore all future "It's a real goer" tips from this man.  The writer, Denis and Thomas had the job of surveying behind the advance party but due to a fortunate communications failure ended up leaving the main route and providentially climbing into 203m of superbly decorated fossil gallery ending at the lip of a 14m deep pot (Sunflower Pot - named after a matchbox thrown down to later prove a connection with the lower levels).  We had first assumed that this pot would enter the mythical enormous passage beyond Rob's streamway and had hurled huge boulders down it, not realising that it was actually an aven on the main "trade route" through the cave along which the others had recently passed!

On the 8th we had planned to visit the unique living rubber tree bridges located in the jungle below Laitkynsew and then check out a supposed resurgence at the nearby village of Mustoh.  "Nearby" is a relative term in a place where everyone lives essentially partway up a gigantic, jungle covered cliff.   Although only a few hundred metres from the Resort, Mustoh is reached either by a 40 minute jeep ride down a hairpin track or a direct walk down about 1500 sandstone steps for a vertical distance of 370 metres which takes about the same time.  As it happened we never got to see the bridges as, following a natter with the village headman, we were shown a sink cave - Krem Umjasew - about ten minutes walk from Mustoh in an adjacent dry valley.  The unprepossessing entrance was located in a heap of boulders at the side of this valley where a short climb down dropped into the head of a stunning, steeply descending bore passage which obviously takes a vast amount of water during the monsoon.  Three of us, dressed in T-shirts and light trousers, were soon knocking up the metreage while the others continued with reconnaissance of some nearby rock shelters known to be the home of a nest of King Cobras!

 

Prospecting in the hills of Meghalava.

After a straight line distance of some 250 metres, from where we could still see daylight from the entrance, we reached the head of a 10 metre pitch caused by a choke in the floor of the main drag where it briefly narrowed down.  This was descended on the following day and the main passage followed on down dip to a deep lake where a traverse and short ladder climb gained the far shore without too much of a wetting.  Huge wedged logs proved the power of the stream in flood conditions and prompted the appropriate name of "The Log Flume" for the main passage. Beyond the lake the cave continued in fine style with a 45 metre free climb down a sculpted rock wall - The North Face - providing great sport.  Here we temporarily lost the stream and reached another pitch - about 20 metres deep but passable with a 10 metre ladder.  Both pitches are actually more easily passed by free climbing with a traverse line, the cave being particularly well endowed with jug holds and ledges.  Beyond, the bore passage entered the ceiling of a huge, gloomy and mist filled chamber some 25 metres deep.  Bats circled in the Dantesque regions below and with hopes of returning to follow gigantic river galleries all the way to Bangladesh we headed back to the Resort to overdo it on celebrating with beer and Captain Morgan rum.  In the meantime Lump and Shelley had pushed an adjacent cave - Krem Umjasew 2 - down a series of pitches and some superbly decorated passage to emerge in the main cave at the 250 metre point.

On the 10th, feeling decidedly fragile, three of us laddered the pitch to the floor of the immense chamber where a huge sand dune and an area of massive collapse marked the apparent end of the accessible system. Martin named this The Desert of Despond. Another look around here next year, without the burden of a rum hangover, may yield a way on.  At 1.077 km long and just under 200 metres deep this system is now one of India's deepest and most sporting caves which hones one's climbing and traversing skills to perfection!  On staggering back to Mustoh village that evening we were met by Denis and Thomas bearing good and bad news.  The good news was that the chai shop was open late and a roaring bonfire had been lit but the bad news was that the jeep, parked nearby, was buggered and we had to climb up the 370m stone staircase back to the Resort!  Never again will I make a pig of myself on rum ... Meanwhile Dr. B. and Jayne had almost gotten arrested by the Border Security Force for wandering around the town of Shella, on the Bangladesh border, without passports but were let off with slapped wrists when the police realised that they were British cavers. They had been looking for possible resurgences but found nothing obvious in the difficult and jungle covered terrain around the town.

Lots of other small caves were looked at around Mustoh village and there is plenty more to do in this very pleasant area.  The locals are very friendly and helpful, especially the village youths, two of whom, Alban and Shampoo (honest!) were taken on a photography/derigging trip in Krem Umjasew and bottomed their first cave with extreme ease, being natural born cavers.  They were so good that Lump sneaked a large rock into their tackle bag to slow the buggers down a bit!

Our surveyed total in this area was 2.3 km and on the 13th we regretfully left the Resort to join up with the main team at Sutnga in the Jaintia Hills.  A stomach bug had now made it's unpleasant presence felt on both us and the Garo team and persisted throughout the expedition, getting almost everyone - including at least one of the Meghalayan lads.  A flock of hopeful looking vultures gathered daily by the roadside to check on it's progress!

At Sutnga we established ourselves in the LB (inspection bungalow) where most of the recently arrived team had already spent a couple of days, investigating leads in the Krem Umthloo system but finding little of interest.  On the 15th "Peter the Pirate", our one eyed Austrian bolting expert and I decided to attempt the climb up Shrimp Pool Aven located at the end of the main upstream passage in Umthloo.  We abseiled in via the already rigged 40m deep Krem Myrliat and soon reached our objective where, after various entertaining but futile attempts at lassoing and sky hooking ledges 5 metres up, we gave up and Peter used our Makita battery drill to put in three bolts. Technology hits Meghalayan caving! From the top, 6 metres above, a superb potholed streamway - Captain Hook's Canyon - was followed until lack of time and another 5 metre climb caused a halt. We returned next day intent on mapping a kilometre or so of horizontal stuff but were soon brought back to reality at the base of a c.l 0 metre high aven located just around the comer from our last survey point.  I partly free climbed this before handing it over to Peter and the Makita for a more professional job.  After an hour's hard work he gained the top and Fiona and I joined him at the base of yet another soaring shaft - Black Spot Aven.  A narrow chimney at one end was again bolted up by Peter to gain an airy ledge with a rift/aven at one end which our knackered bolter suggested I have a look at before we headed out for our jeep rendezvous as time was now pressing.

I managed to free climb up another 10 metres or so to reach a huge, double level chamber with routes up between massive boulders where it was easy to lose the way.  Leaves and other debris indicated a nearby entrance and, on looking up, I saw daylight at the top of an inaccessible, c.15 metre high aven.  Another daylight aven nearby seemed climbable so I summoned the others to join me for the escape attempt - later proved to have been a bad move!  A bolting/free climbing ascent of this aven was attempted but it was now dark on the surface and this, plus a large overhang put paid to the writer's efforts some 8 metres up.  We were now well overdue and decided to retreat via Krem Myrliat from whence we emerged two hours late at 9 p.m. to later meet a prospective rescue team who had just arrived at Tongseng village. After apologising all round we gratefully drank the emergency beer supplies thoughtfully provided and were driven back to the LB. for a very late meal.  Despite all this it had been a classic and enjoyable trip and we had virtually connected the main streamway entrance to this 12 km system - to provide one of the world's finest through trips - but where was this entrance?  A note typed in German and stuck on the LB. wall gave the answer.  Last year Thomas Matthalm and team had investigated two interconnected surface shafts situated near the V-shaped ancient monoliths on the footpath to Krem Myrliat but had not descended them due to lack of equipment.  This was Krem Ryman and was visited next day by Peter, me and the expedition stomach bug.  While the bug and I sought out a cosy patch of jungle Peter abseiled down one of the open pots to pass the terminal bolt of the previous day a mere 6 metres from the surface! Bugger, bugger, bugger.  Another couple of bolts and a bit of climbing would have seen us out in plenty of time - or even better; if my German had been up to scratch or I had studied Daniel's magnificent cave data book more closely, I would have realised this was the main sink and we could have explored it from the top down! Such is life.  The connecting passages and chamber, aptly named "Life is a Drama" from a slogan seen painted on a Shaktiman truck, were later surveyed and yet another entrance pot 40 metres deep found.

 

The v-shaped monoliths and the dolmen at Tongseng.

On the 20th Yorkshire Dave and I investigated the strongly draughting "Hairdryer Hole" situated above a different part of the Umthloo system.  Two other adjacent holes were pointed out by local woodcutter Barlis Tongseng.  They were collectively known as Krem Umtyngier and included a fourth, huge shaft which had previously been descended into Umthloo and incorrectly named Krem Moolale.  Two of the three, including the very promising Hairdryer Hole, were dug open to reveal short vertical systems becoming too tight or boulder choked and the third also became choked.  Despite this they may well be visited again in the future as they lie in a particularly interesting zone where a connection between the underlying Umthloo system and the nearby 1.820 km Krem Muid may be on the cards. Krem Muid itself may connect up with the 3.339 km long, and truly stunning, Krem Mawshun, located near the village of Leilad.  Bang will be needed in Hairdryer Hole but this has been easily obtained in the past from local quarrymen - at an inflated price but still dirt cheap compared with European prices.  It was while digging out the entrance of one of these caves that your scribe got jumped on by a 5 cm long Tiger Leech which was fortunately spotted in time (before it died of alcohol poisoning) and was pulled off by Barlis.

Meanwhile other team members had been shown and had partly surveyed the huge stream cave of Krem Liat Prah, slightly to the north east of the Umthloo area.  Fiona persuaded the writer that a low and wet inlet, mapped for some distance by her and Christophe, needed finishing off and could lead to great things.  Having ranted on about the necessity of pushing all small side passages I could hardly refuse and so found myself lying flat out in a stream after having crawled in water for 70 metres and now breathing in vast clouds of acetylene gas from Fiona's dropped spare carbide drum. Luckily the passage closed down here and we could return to the 15 metre diameter "aircraft hangar" main drag of this lengthy system - later surveyed and meticulously drawn up by Michael, whose "baby" it was, to a length of 5.954 km.  A connection with the " Shaktiman Highway" in the adjacent 1.046 km long Krem Um Im was missed by only a few metres when the explorers failed to swim a short lake, not realising that it was the same lake seen to one side of the streamway in Liat Prah!  This combined system may, in turn, connect with the previously explored Krem Labbit (0.457+ km) - itself almost joined to Krem Shynrong Labbit (5.7 km).  This theoretical system of over 13 km is itself not far from the extensive major upstream inlet passages of the 12.65 km long Umthloo system and a promising pot found by Dan and Fiona is situated directly over the missing section where Robin, Ruben and Ronnie also did extensive surface investigations.  A possible mega (or Megha) system of over 40 km is prophesied if the missing links actually exist and can be discovered.

 

As more caves are discovered and surveyed along the limestone ridge the picture becomes clearer and the connections more likely.  With vast, low lying areas on both sides of this ridge the extreme age of these caves becomes obvious and the writer has a pet theory that they were formed by a mighty river originating in the Himalaya to the north - possibly the proto Brahmaputra before it eroded it's way around the north west side of Meghalaya and then south to the Bay of Bengal.  The original catchment area for the ridge is now the country of Bangladesh some 1,500 metres below!  Another likely connecting cave to Umthloo was pointed out to us by a small boy and lay only 160 metres from Krem Ryman. Krem Korlooheng started with a scramble down for 15 metres to a 12 metre pitch, awkward sloping rift, 90 metres of Yorkshire style scalloped streamway and then a bloody great black hole.

Cherrypicker Pot proved to be a 42.7 metre free hang to a ledge and further 8 metre pitch - over 50 metres in all and awesomely photogenic.  Walkie-talkies were used for communication on this pitch as the echo chamber effect made ordinary speech unintelligible.  Mark used another of our toys, a petrol powered rock drill, halfway down the pot to put in a rebelay and the noise was incredible - like someone ascending the rope on a Harley-Davidson!  At the bottom a pleasant stream passage was surveyed by Lindsay and the writer for 230 metres to end at a low and squalid section which soon sumped.  Here Mark swore he saw a fish which he recognised from the previous year in Umthloo!  Our hopes for an easy way out via Krem Ryman were now dashed and once again we were late back for supper. Another "rescue party" swung into action that evening, not for us but for Yorkshire Dave, Annie and Nicola who had cocked up their jeep rendezvous point and were later found having walked several kms back towards Sutnga.  Communications are a big problem in this fairly remote area with poor roads and teams exploring different areas at the same time.  Next year we plan to take more walkie-talkies and hired satellite 'phones.  One possible problem with walkie-talkies is their use near the Bangladesh (and even the sister state of Assam) borders.

Thomas, Brian K.D. and team had meanwhile been pushing a 1.323 km long resurgence cave reported to have a resident ghost - Krem Wah Shikar.  A beautifully decorated and very roomy river passage had a variety of inlets - one of which Thomas and I explored to reach a second entrance. A picturesque grotto halfway along was named Suppliers' Chamber as both discoverers happened to coincidentally own caving shops called Bat Products!  Funny old world ... The resident ghost was obviously a bit miffed and pinched one of my socks in revenge.  Thomas placated it with the offering of a Coconut Crunchee biscuit (pronounced bisquit by Peter) and the sock later mysteriously reappeared at the LB.

This was obviously a playful and friendly wraith. In the remote and somewhat spooky Lakadong area which some of us had briefly visited last year Martin, Mark, Shelley and Dan were confronted by something else altogether.  They had set a precedent during their first week in Shillong by finding the body of a recently murdered teenager floating in a river.  In Lakadong their main aim was to descend two c.50 metre potholes located near the village and neighbouring immigrant coal miners' encampment.  Surrounded by the usual horde of curious villagers they rigged the first pot and were not unduly surprised to hear the sounds of people apparently working in the depths below.  These were obviously colliers who had entered from another, unknown entrance.  After shouting down a warning Dan abseiled into the depths to stop short of a group of at least six people at the shaft bottom. The shouted warning had been unnecessary as his new acquaintances had very obviously been dead for some time, and probably not by accident.  There was no other access to the pot.  Without getting off the rope our now thoroughly discomfited hero rapidly changed over and headed for the sweeter smelling surface to report to the locals that this reputedly 700 metre deep hole could not be bottomed due to lack of tackle!

They quickly thanked the crowd for their assistance and escaped to the tranquillity of the local LB. Two days later a second shaft which lay in the edge of the jungle some distance away was visited.  Once again this was rigged and descended and though an awesome place seemed to be ghost free.  On reaching the bottom though it was apparent that the spirits were only taking the day off as another rotting corpse met the startled explorer's eyes. Yet again a rapid retreat was made. Apparently the deceased was a local woman thief who raided nearby villages but then made the fatal error of stealing from her own people.  Justice can be simple and swift in these remote areas and a 50 metre pothole is as sure as a gun or rope to ensure that the sentence is satisfactorily carried out, with the added benefit of no body disposal problems.

Apart from these gruesome discoveries the team were surprised not to find large, horizontal galleries at the base of these pots.  More reconnaissance work needs to be done in this theoretically important area hence the authorities were not informed of the quantity of dead people found. It is most unlikely that they would be interested anyway, especially if these were the bodies of immigrant miners who seem to be regarded as a sub species of the human race.

During the expedition many more smaller caves were explored, surveyed and occasionally dug into by sad people with no mental control.  Dan and Fiona undertook more biospelaeological research in the Krem Kotsati/Umlawan system at Lumshnong and in Krem Liat Prah.  Paul continued with the ongoing video project and he, Lump and others took many still photographs, particularly of cave life and entrances for record purposes.  Daniel, Thomas, Mark and Dave wore their fingers to the bone typing data and diary notes into the indispensable computers. Ruben and Ronnie reminded us all what it was like to be young and several times almost became candidates for a Lakadong ropeless abseil trip.  Dorien mutinied after a few days and returned to Belgium to look after her sick father.  Dr. B, suffering from the after effects of a bout of pneumonia, went back to Calcutta with Jayne for a rest and did sterling work in tracking down J .K. Dey and Sons, carbide and safety lamp manufacturers.  Your scribe later met Mr. Sandip Kumar Dey and arranged for the future manufacture of brass carbide generators for the Indian and British caving markets.

With less than eleven months to go plans are already in hand for next year's trip. Brian K.D. and Gareth William were introduced to the very influential high priest of the pagan, animist "Old Religion" which is apparently still practised in the Tongseng - Shnongrim area alongside Presbyterianism.  This very knowledgeable and friendly English speaker showed us several caves, pointed out sacred caves which it was suggested we keep out of and offered to find us a camp site in the middle of the area for next year.  Most of those present will return on the slim hope of finding some " ... karst features of outstanding significance."

Seventy sites were recorded this year giving a surveyed length of 22.598 kms and putting the total Meghalayan cave length at 204.598 kms.  This article is written from the viewpoints of two BEC members and fuller accounts of other peoples' experiences will appear in Descent, the Grampian S.G. Bulletin, etc.

Participants:

Austria: Peter "the Pirate" Ludwig (LVHOO)

Belgium: Christophe Deblaere, Dorien Verboven (SPEKUL)

Germany: Jorg Dreybrodt (HADES), Michael Laumanns (SCB), Daniel Gebauer (HAG)

India: Organizer - Brian Kharpran Daly (GSG/MA), Shelley & Lindsay Diengdoh, Dale, Teddy & Ronnie Mawlong, Gareth William Lyngwa (all MA), Denis Rayen, Adora ThabaiTyler, Larsing Sukhlain, Phiban Kharumlong, Brian Khyriem, Batkupar Lyngdoh, Abraham Sangma, Alban Bakash (Mustoh village), Shampoo Rapmai (Mustoh), Sunny Lyngdoh, Baba Mawlong, Darimika Bariat, Lija and Eleanor Lyngdoh.

Ireland: Robin & Ruben Sheen (BCCC)

Switzerland: Thomas Arbenz (SNT)

Gt. Britain: (absent organizer - Simon Brooks (OCC/GSG), Leader - Mark Brown (SUSS), Annie Audsley (BEC/SUSS), Nicola Bayley (RFODCC), Tony Boycott (BEC/UBSS/GSG), Paul Edmunds, Dan Harries (GSO), Andy Harp (RFODCC), Tony Jarratt (BEC/GSG), Jayne Stead (GSG), Fiona Ware (GSG), "Yorkshire" Dave Hodgson (GSG), Martin "Lump" Groves (SCC), Andy Tyler

With the assistance, hospitality and support of a host of cooks, drivers, village headmen, guides, dhobi ladies, small boys, partygoers and members of the Meghalayan Adventurers' Association - especially Donboc Syiemlieh and Bung Diengdoh.  Not forgetting (an impossibility!) Maureen Diengdoh and the ever cheerful Ladies of Shillong.  Thanks also to Wells St. John's Ambulance for the donation of a Neil Robertson stretcher, now resident in Shillong and hopefully never to be used in anger.

References:

Caving in the Abode of the Clouds - Report of the 1992 & 1994 Expedition

Caving in the Abode of the Clouds - Part II - Report of the 1995, 1996 & 1997 Expeditions (both available from BAT Products)

Various articles in the BB, Descent, GSG Bulletin, International Caver, Caves & Caving, etc.

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