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Waldegrave Swallet

(ST/5473.5155) - also known as Balcombe's Hole (note 1)

a brief history by Dave Irwin


1 - Wheel (or Wheal) Pit after the loss of water, undated.  Photo. HE. Balch [ Wells Museum Library}

The sites associated with the west side of Stockhill interested cavers throughout the 20th century and continue to this day.  That streams were sinking in the area was already well known from old mining records and this fact was first recorded in caving literature by Herbert Balch.

Balch formed the opinion that the water sinking hereabouts resurged at Rodney Stoke from a single observation following a flood early in the 20th century.  On a dry summers day the water at the Rodney Stoke Rising [Springhead Rising or Well Head as it is also known] became polluted with' ... suspended sediments ... , (note 2) Shortly after this event Balch heard that a deep pond  (note 3) whose depth had been artificially increased by the miners had suddenly emptied on the very same day.  The pressure on the bottom of the pond, Wheel or Wheal Pit, had increased due to the greater head of water and caused the floor to collapse allowing the water to drain away leaving an open hole. Today, hydrologists doubt that there is any subterranean connection between the sink and the Rodney Stoke rising and believe that the water travels underfound to one or other of the two main Cheddar risings some six miles to the west. (note 4)

Waldegrave Swallet has been dug on at least three occasions over a 55 year period, 1925-1926 and 1935-1936 by MNRC, and during 1975-1977 the workers were members of BEC and WCC but none achieved more than the MNRC attempt in 1935.

MNRC Dig, 1925-1926

During the early 1920s water commenced flowing into the depression known as Waldegrave Swallet and soon the site took a sizeable stream under all conditions.  Cavers of the day noted this change and in the summer of 1925 three MNRC members, J. Harry Savory, Clement Richardson and Eric L. Bird on holiday at Priddy, decided that the site looked sufficiently promising to merit an excavation.  Although the dig looked extremely promising and a considerable quantity of infill was removed a collapse occurred effectively fillin~ the excavated hole. The site was abandoned for the rest of that year.  Balch recorded  (note 5) :

During the summer holidays, Mr. Savory, Mr. Richardson and Mr. [E.L.] Bird, (note 6) whilst staying at Priddy, took the opportunity to make an examination, so far as was possible, of a new swallet close to the big pond near Miners Arms. The water has here commenced to develop several new cavities on and near the eastern end of the pond and one of these appears to be so extensive that an entrance seemed possible. A considerable quantity of debris was removed by them and an open aperture appeared in the rocks.  Towards the close of the work however, a considerable fall of the side occurred and the effort was abandoned for the time.

John Savory records that two photographs of the three diggers exist and that they may have been taken at that time. (note 7)


2 - General view of the 1935 dig site. Photo.- F. Graham Balcombe [CDG Library} [The bare hillsides are now thickly pine forested, see photo. 7}

Digging was continued by Richardson and Savory in 1926 but not to the extent that had been done the previous year though they succeeded in reaching a depth of 20 ft. (note 8) Balcombe records that it was rumoured that another party ventured into the dig and recorded a depth of 40 ft. He added' ... that the validity of this report is questioned.'  Balcombe was more forthcoming in his report written on the 13th February 1935  (note 9)

Information has come to hand that an excavation was undertaken on the identical spot some 20 years ago, by a gang of navvies working for a fortnight, and that no "sizeable passage" will be met with until 40 ft down.  It is almost certain, however, that no excavation has been done on this identical spot, for apart from any other indications (e.g. the nature of the material removed during the present work) there is no trace of any timber whatsoever, and an excavation without it would be frankly impossible.  Further, it is not considered possible to get down 40 ft in twelve working days or so. The source of the information has not yet been examined ....

Though Balch in his 1926 Annual Report to MNRC was enthusiastic about the work and added that' ... there is great hope of results being attained .... '  (note 10) no further progress reports were given and it can be fairly assumed to have been abandoned.  However, because of the 'promising situation' Balch convinced the Street Council Engineer, Mr. T. Jones, to carry out a water trace at the swallet by pouring nearly 250,000 gallons of water into the sink and arranging a careful watch at all the main risings .

... Though there was great discoloration at the swallet and chemical tests were employed, and day and night watch was kept at each possible outlet, no trace of this great volume of water was to be found anywhere .... '

None of the resurgences showed any sign of discoloration of their waters to which Balch assumed that there was a great deal of dilution and settling between the sink and the rising.

2nd MNRC Dig, 1935

Following his work in Swildon's Hole, Balcombe turned his attention to Waldegrave Swallet.  There appears no reason given why he should have chosen this site but in January 1935 digging with other members of MNRC commenced. Before seriously commencing to work at the site he invited a Westbury-sub-Mendip water diviner, Mr. H. H. Dennis to investigate the site.  Balcombe recorded that the  (note 11)

... line of action now being pursued is excavation from the swalIet back towards the Pond, a shaft then to be sunk into the boulders and a heading driven as necessary along the stream course.


Fig1 : H.H. Dennis’ dowsing map, c. January 1935.  Original 25cm x 17.5cm.  Copy drawn by Balcombe 29th November 1935.  (BRCA Library)

The course of the stream has been approximately traced through the favour of H. H. Dennis Esq [sic] of Westbury- sub-Men dip, by the method of water-divination. Five points have thus been obtained and should work at the swallet prove fruitless, it is proposed to sink a shaft at the fifth point ...

Helped by Bufton, C. (Digger) Harris and Baker, a new shaft was commenced which lay in the location of the diverted streamway carried out by Savory during the excavation a decade earlier.  Because of the potential damage to the earth sides of the shaft opened by the Balcombe party it was thus decided to divert the stream back to its original route - in doing so it  (note 12)

... will not have any undesirable effect, but in any case wilI provide interesting and perhaps valuable information .... '

Balcombe added that if the diverted water created difficulties then it would be piped into the swallet.  It was one, though not the first, of the digs to employ the use of explosives as a major digging tool.  During January 1935 the diggers used over 21 lb. of explosives in the form of 2 oz shots; 'Rupert', a 2 ton boulder, was removed with the help of equipped sledgehammers' ... '  (note 13)

By the end of January, sometimes digging under the light of a paraffin flare, the dig had reached a depth of 32 ft.  Two features were uncovered but led nowhere : a narrow creep, heading ESE, and a 10 - 15 ft. long rift, heading NNE.  Though the rift became too narrow for further exploration several diggers aired the view that

... 15' to 20' was visible, opinions differing on the final direction assumed

A variety of side passages were investigated including the rift but though

... various obstructions were blasted away, and the passage-ways cleared [it was found] that this also peters out in a small basin of about 18 inches diameter, and 12 inches deep, in boulders again, but unworkable and in any case without prospect. ... The acquisition of a rock-drill and compressor for such work is being considered.

Shoring the dig now became a necessity and by the 4th February the job had been accomplished. By this time Balcombe and his fellow excavators had come to the conclusion that the shaft was but a section of a large rift which peters out in the ESE Creep but as it widened considerably towards the NE wall it was concluded that it was the way forward even though it comprised a very unconsolidated infill of loose boulders and as Ba1combe succinctly put it

... and further more the excavation under this wall will present a problem of some delicacy

Small cavities appeared as they lowered the shaft floor but none gave any new passage though they were encouraged when they found that the rock in the lower sections of the shaft was in limestone though  (note 14)

... the Geological Survey indicates that the Limestone does not occur within a quarter of a mile of the swallet, it is gratifying to meet it at a depth of only 10 to 20 ft below the surface.

 

Fig. 2 : Sketch survey of dig site produced by Salcombe, 4th February, 1935. Original: 25 em x 18 em. [BCRA Library]

The deeper the shaft was driven the greater the instability of the shaft sides.  This gave much concern but gradually the shaft was shuttered.

The greater interest of diving at Wookey Hole Cave caused the diggers to abandon the site until later that year. Ba1combe was not too enthusiastic about the possibilities of digging for large caves in the central Mendip area and, further, because of the heat of the summer sun

' ... and surrounded by hordes of excursionists, the work was markedly distasteful…..'

However, returning to the site after the Wookey diving activity the diggers had to spend a great deal of time repairing the damage done by weathering and by interference from the general sightseer including damage to the lifting tackle.

... Of the former, the principle is the wrecking of the counter-weight which, falling down the shaft, knocked out some of the timbering and resulted in minor falls from the walls; burial of the accumulation of beer bottles and other trippers rubbish thereby will call for careful work when re-excavating ....

Work continued during the Autumn of 1935 but was dogged by slippages and general instability of certain sections of the shaft.  To ease the extraction of the rubbish from the site the hoisting gear pulley system was improved enabling a man to lift about half a ton single-handedly and ' ... work is possible with quite a small party.'  (note 15)  A diagram of the arrangement was published with Balcombe's Report No. 11. (note 16) A second, lower section of shuttering was installed and by the middle of November it had been completed between the -10ft to -20ft levels to enable work to resume at the bottom of the shaft.


Fig. 3: Sketch survey by Salcombe, dated 29th October, 1935, carried out before shoring of the upper sections of the shaft was undertaken. (BCRA Library)

Eventually by mid-December 1935 the dig was to reach a depth of 50-55 ft revealing only small cavities under the upper rift feature  (note 17)

... which here had dwindled to a small crack, and the sound of falling water was audible.  The work of  driving  a heading through to this was absorbingly interesting but was doomed to disappointment, the cavity was small, only a few cubic feet; the water was a mere trickle running in from the wall and disappearing again under a floor of fine detritus ....

Digging results were far from encouraging and by the 24th December 1935 the site was backfilled. Balcombe wrote that though the rigging had been a good exercise in removing material towards the end of the dig the equipment was of little use but

... undoubtedly added to the interest of the task.  The efforts below proved unsuccessful; the hole was closed down, the excavated material discharged round the timber core, and the surrounding fence closed up to complete the protection of the site.  The hole is accessible to anyone sufficiently interested to remove the nailed-down lid, but although everything was sound and safe when left, please remember the notice on the fence :  "Persons entering do so at their own risk," and also remember to fix the lid again securely.

3 - [left) Starting to shore the 1935 shaft.

4 - [right) - Shoring the upper ection of the shaft.

Both photos. : F. G. Balcombe (Album B1 in CDG collection) CDG Library)

The site received little more attention until the 1970s consequently the shaft and its shoring fell into disrepair and became a danger to the casual visitor.  C. Howard Kenney reported that during 1950 they had to fill the dig site. (note 18)

Owing to the large number of the public visiting this spot and the unsafe nature of the entrance shaft, the Estate agents considered its protection or closing essential.

A days work with spades, explosive and Mr. Devenish's jeep with bulldozer blade completed the task.  A full report was made on the excavation by F.G. BaIcombe in 1936 on behalf of the Society,. and it may be examined on request.

Digging Teams

Getting a regular digging team together is generally a struggle today but it was no different during the 1920s and 1930s.  During the time that Balcombe was enthusiastically working the Waldegrave site he often nudged fellow members of MNRC to help out with the heavy hauling work. To ensure that his helpers knew of the digging arrangements he printed headed note paper for correspondence and circulars and produced cards which gave the times of the forthcoming digging sessions.  Balcombe circulated a letter dated 25th November 1935 to MNRC members bemoaning the fact that support from 'clubmen' is 'practically negligible.'  He continued:

... caves in the Mendip area are not to be found by turning up a stone, and walking in.  The broken nature of the strata, and the wide covering of Mesozoic [sic] deposits make their discovery a matter of hard and continuous labour.

Waldegrave Swallet is a hole of great promise, but the goal will not be won without much hard labour .... The job is elegantly equipped with tackle, no pains spared to assist the work of excavation.  The job has cost on £200 in workers time and in hard cash.

... What are the club-men doing?  Hibernating.  With a sleep so deep that even the spring or the summer will not wake them.

Wake up! ... At Waldegrave, where even bucket hauling is a fine art requiring many weeks of practice, bucket hauling is not the only thing to do.

Can you shore up a face, or prop an awkward boulder?  Can you say just where a face will slip?  Can you place a shot and say this and this will go, say that and that will not be touched?  Can you recognise the fossils, or say just how the new met phenomenon occurred?  Can you tell a good prop from a dud?  Do you even know the quickest way to fill a bucket?

I reckon not!  Take a load from the men who do not need a club to lean on!  Do a bit of work, get tough and let your fellow club-men lean on you!

Those that did attend more or less regularly form a list of many of the best known cavers from this period. Their names have become almost immortal in Mendip caving circles: Atkins, Baker, Douglas Bovertson, Joe Bowsher, Braithwaite [of Weston- super-Mare] Bufton, Frost, Gibbons, Harris, Humphries, Murrell, Needham, Robertson, Sheppard, Taunton, Tucknott and not least Penelope Powell.

Although Balcombe seemed to have great enthusiasm for the dig he considered the Central Mendip area to be a barren zone for the discovery of new cave passage.  He identified the main problem that diggers would encounter - limestone interbedded within the limestone shales which would enable small bedding development which would be subsequently choked with the disintegrated shale.  That coupled with the fact that the catchment area associated with each site was small would yield little or no cave passage.  History has shown that several large caves were to be revealed in the area in future decades which included Mendip's second longest cave system, St. Cuthbert's Swallet; the only cave in the area that could be associated with Balcombe's thesis would be Welsh's Green Swallet opened during the 1980s.  Balcombe philosophically summed up their efforts at the site in a report published by MNRC in 1930. (note 19)

 ... The odds against success in this venture had been realised for some time and this realisation has helped in no small measure to soften the final blow. Waldegrave has been a great task, and has given much joy and satisfaction to those sharing in it. Though no cavern has been found it has served as a training school of no mean severity and for this alone it has been well worth while ....


Fig. 4: Hauling systems used at Waldegrave Swallet, 1935. (CDG Library)


Fig. 5: Letter headed notepaper. (BCRA Library). Size: Quarto


Fig. 6 : A digging invitation card produced by Ba/combe for digging sessions on the th and 8th December, 1935. Dimensions: 14cm x 9 em. (BCRA Library)

Mossy Powell's Poem

The famous expression 'Pump, you buggers, pump' that caused the plug to be pulled during the BBC Broadcast in July 1935 of one of the Wookey Hole diving 'expeditions' was immortalised in a little known poem by Penelope Powell (Mossy) during the Autumn of that year.  Obviously she wasn't going to let Balcombe forget that he couldn't dive at Waldegrave Swallet and his faux-pas! (note 20)

Waldegrave Swallet

By Mrs Powell.

Oh, Graham as you know by now,
Is seized with notions queer,
He's diving on the Mendips,
And there ain’t no Water there.
Ah called his troops together on
The Waldegrave Dump,
And announced his new intentions,
Shouting
Pump, you boogars, Pump.

He covered up his box of tricks
With canvas pure and pale,
Then tootled down to Cheddar,
And got Mossy out on bail,
"Now you and Ting must guard my store,
Or you’ll have cause to jump,
So keep the frogs and lizards
Out of
Pump, you boogars, Pump.

He won a lovely diving suit,
From distant London Town,
And tried to catch the tadpoles
As they wriggled up and down.
Then he moved off to Wookey Hole,
Where Captain got the hump,
for Graham bust the telephone,
With
Pump, you boogars, Pump.

Some fat men came to B.B.B.,
What Graham meant to do,
And brought their wire entanglements,
And left them there on view.
The gang produced the diving gear,
And stacked it in a lump,
Then Graham promptly shattered mike,
With
Pump, you boogars, Pump.

Continued interest

In the first volume of the Shepton Mallet Caving Club Log Book, Fred Davies entered (5th April 1955) that the excavated shaft had' ... run in, some ofthe shoring still visible. Also found swallet at the SE comer that showed evidence of having been shored up but no accessible opening there now .... ' The latter site could possibly be one of the swallets that were opened by the slaggers during the 1850s and 1860s to drain the overflowing ponds. Ten years later Paul Allen (SMCC and SVCC) and Peter B. Smith (SMCC) visited the site after reading Davies' log note. An entry in Allen's logbook records that [April 11th] (note 21)

.. , Only one stake of the original shoring is visible and the entrance is well and truly filled in.  Pete Smith returned to the hut [SMCC] for digging tools whilst Roger [Biddle] and myself damned [sic] the stream. Once Pete returned we set to work clearing rubble. Almost immediately Roger nearly lost the crow-bar [sic] down a hole which opened up!  A little more scratching and the hole could be seen to continue for a few feet. Roger and myself were all for putting a couple of sticks in the boulders and having a big bang - Pete, unfortunately, was loathe to part with the jelly, and so we retired.

The swallet is quite impressive, and its chances of "going" must be rated pretty high.  It takes all the drainage of Walde grave Pool (when the pool contains enough water) which in turn takes the drainage of the hills near Priddy Nine Barrows by a well defined stream valley.  Now that some of us are showing a definite dislike for Priddy Green we could do far worse than transfer our attention to this sight [sic].

No further activity followed this visit.  Reopening the site 1975 - 1977

Re-opening the site 1975 – 1977

During 1975 several BEC and WCC members decided that another attempt at Waldegrave Swallet was on the cards.        To establish the acronym for the digging teams' name, as was then the habit of other inter-club groups, e.g. ATLAS, the team became known as the Priddy Institute for Scientific Speleology.  This becomes a vulgar acronym!  However, the team projected their energies into relocating the Balcombe shaft.  Initially large chunks of limestone were removed and several large boulders had to be manhandled.  Some weighty lumps of limestone were described as being of 'hernia' size and the larger blocks were known as, succinctly described by Phil Hendy, ' ... a two hernia boulder was a fearsome lift indeed .... , (note 22)

Work began on the 27th April 1975 and was spearheaded by Chris Batstone, Martin Bishop and Richard Stevenson of the BEC and Phil Hendy and Adrian Vanderplank of the WCC.  After a few weeks of toil pieces of rotten wood began to appear and the team knew that they were now in the Balcombe shaft. However, the broken nature of the side walls made the process extremely dangerous and shoring was once again installed in the shaft. Hendy wrote  (note 23)

... All this while, the stream sank well but indeterminately; digging was easy, being mainly a matter of lifting boulders of varying sizes, and carefully rescuing the newts and dragonfly larvae from the mud ... progress was fast, and a depth of about six feet was rapidly achieved.  By June 1st, wooden shoring became necessary ... While fixing this, the top of a rift was uncovered, with limestone on the left, and conglomerate on the right. ...


5 - The site before the wooden shoring was installed, 1975. Photo. Phil Hendy

Though the rift was about eight feet deep the whole area was unstable' ... being roofed with loose infill, so the cavity was closed with shoring.  Later that same day a hole opened having an estimated depth of about 20 ft. (note 24) - this was the rift noted in 1934 by the Balcombe team.  With that discovery the diggers established a permanent entrance and introduced the use of explosives to remove the larger boulders.  Good progress was made in the next few weeks and the dig face was progressing eastwards. Work stopped for the summer expeditions to the Pyrenees and Picos and digging was slow to restart. A visit by Hendy in October of that year found that a massive collapse had occurred' ... resulting in a jam of boulders, wood and scaffold poles in the floor of the depression.'  Later that month, cementing the walls enabled the diggers to have a roof of sorts and have sufficient room at the shaft floor to manoeuvre the excavated infill.  (note 25) On one such trip Hendy recorded that though stone walling had been successful and a few feet of infill removed from the shaft floor' ... More diggers and concreting needed.'  Enthusiasm waned and an ill located charge destabilised the roof and the site was subsequently abandoned.  The spoil heap was transferred back into the shaft to make the whole site safe.


6 - Adrian Vander plank (WCC) working on the installation of the shoring, 1975. Photo. Phil Hendy

Following the success of the BEC at extending a cave in conglomerate at Wigmore Farm - Wigmore Swallet, the WCC felt that there was sufficient justification to reopen the Waldegrave Swallet again but little came of their efforts except to install a strong, lockable gate.  Digging commenced just after the Easter holiday and continued regularly until the end of May when activities were abruptly brought to a halt due to heavy rain. Hendy commented that  (note 26)

, ... The following day I had a look at the site to find a heavy stream flowing out of the pond.  It was too voluminous for the normal stream channel, and flowed as a sheet over the old spoil heap ... and directly into the shaft.  I am not looking forward to our next digging trip, as it is likely that the underground scene will not be a pretty sight. ... '

No further work was done at the site and a year later repairs had to be made to the entrance gate when it was noted that though the gate was well repaired by Glyn Bolt, the' ... same ... cannot be said for the sides of the dig!'  (note 27) By 1986 the site was' ... much collapsed ... ' since when the site has been backfilled. (note 28)

Acknowledgements:

My thanks to Tony Jarratt for reading the manuscript and the Trustees of Wells Museum for the use of Photo. No. I from the Balch photo. albums; Martin Grass, Librarian of CDG for use of Photos 2 - 4 from the Balcombe collection in the CDG Library; Phil Hendy for access to his photographic collection and the PISS logbook; Roy Paulson, Librarian of BCRA Library. for permission to reproduce sketch surveys and illustrations from Balcombe's Waldegrave reports Nos. I -12, formerly part of the BSA Collection.

Dave Irwin, Priddy. Somerset. 28th September 2000


7 - The fern filled depression [foreground) of Walde grave Swallet in 1997 (looking east). digital photo. Dave Irwin

REFERENCE

Price, Graham, 1980, Caving News, Mendip. Cer SS Jnl 10(2)67(Mar/Apr)

Mine found at East Harptree; New MCG Hut destroyed; Lamb Leer Cavern, Manor Farm Swallet

TRANSCRIPT:

Balch:

FULL TRANSCRIPT OF THE REPORT  (note 29)

On the hills interesting work has been done.  Mr. Harry Savory and Mr. Richardson have carried on the attempt to open the new swallet by the big pond on Earl Waldegrave's estate on the old British road near Miner's Arms, and there is great hope of results being attained.

An indication that this group of swallets feeds the stream at Rodney Stoke led to a great experiment carried out by the Street Council Engineer, Mr. T. Jones, on my initiative, when nearly a quarter of a million gallons of water were discharged into this swallet in twenty-four hours, and a careful watch kept for results.  Though there was great discoloration at the swallet and chemical tests were employed, and day and night watch was kept at each possible outlet, no trace of this great volume of water was to be found anywhere.

These experiments were repeated, and in no case has a test material put down a Mendip Swallet been traceable at either of the risings of Wells, Wookey Hole, Rodney Stoke or Cheddar. The dilution of course is very great and this accounts in some measure for the difficulty experienced.

References :

Jarratt log books: 20-21 Apr. 1976 - Digging and removing boulders

Tony states that one BEC member, Pete Lord descended the dig and was promptly buried by a collapse. He was dug out and the site abandoned

Notes

1.                  Oldham, Anthony D. et ai, 1963, Not in Barrington - or Oldham. WCC Jnl 7(90)199-207(June)

2.                  Balch, Herbert E., 1937, Mendip, its Swallet Caves and Rock Shelters. Wells: Clare, Son & Co., 211pp, iIIus .. figs, surveys [po 174} and 1947, Mendip - its swallet caves and rock shelters. London: Simpkin, Marshall (1941) Ltd., [vi] + 156pp, surveys, iIIus. [p.137-8]

3.                  Possibly Wheal [Wheel] Pit (ST/5477.5 143).

4.                  A new trace is planned to be carried out in the near future.

5.                  Balch, H.E., 1926, Mendip Nature Research Committee Report for 1925. MNRC Rep (18) in WNHAS Report for 1925, p.44-46

6.                  Possibly Eric Bird that was associated with Tratman in the UBSS and accompanied him on the Balch trips into Swildon's Hole during the last half of 1921.

7.                  Savory, John led], 1989, A man deep in Mendip. The Caving Diaries of Harry Savory 1910-1921. Gloucester Alan Sutton, xviii + 150pp, maps, illus., figs, surveys. [po 142]

8.                  Balcombe, F. Graham, 1936, Waldegrave Swallet, Somerset. Lon. 2 degrees 38' 55" Lat. 51 degrees 15' 35" Wells: WNHAS & MNRC, i + 5pp, fig (17-6-1936) [po 2]; reprinted in WCC Jn 114 (168) 125-127 (1977)

9.                  Balcombe, F.G., 1935, Report No.6, 13th February 1935 [in] Reports Nos. 1-12.  Not published. 14 pp Fcp mss, map, surveys, illus. [BCRA Library]

10.              Balch, H.E., 1927, Mendip Nature Research Committee Report for 1926. MNRC Rep (19) in WNHAS Report for 1926, p. 27-30, illus

11.              Salcombe, F.G., 1935, Report No. I, 9th January 1935 [in] Reports Nos. 1 - 12. Not published. 14 pp Fcp mss, map, surveys, illus. [BCRA Library]

12.              Salcombe, F.G. 1935, Report No.2 17th January 1935 [in] Reports Nos. 1 - 12. Not published. 14 pp Fcp mss, map, surveys, illus. [BCRA Library]

13.              Balcombe, F. Graham, 1936, [as above]

14.              Balcombe, F.G., 1935, Report No.2, [as above]

15.              Balcombe, F.G., 1935, Report No. 10, [undated but written after 29th October 1935 and before 26th November 1935 [in I Reports Nos. I - 12. Not published. 14 pp Fcp mss, map, surveys, iIIus. [BCRA Library]

16.              Balcombe, F.G., 1935, Report No. II , [undated but written after 29th October 1935 and before 26th November 1935 [in] Reports Nos. I - 12. Not published. 14 pp Fcp mss, map, surveys, ill us. [BCRA Library]

17.              Balcombe, F. Graham, 1936, [as above]

18.              Kenney, C. Howard, 1950, Summary of work, 1950. MNRC Rep (43) in WNHAS Report for 1950, p.7-8

19.              Balcombe, F. Graham, 1936 [as above] [p, 4]

20.              Balcombe, F.G., 1935, Report No, II [as above]

21.              Allen, Paul, 1965, Caving Diary, 1965. Vol. 3" 26-27, map

22.              Hendy, Philip G., 1977, Waldegrave Swallet - thirty years on. WCC JnI14(170)169-l70(Nov), illus.

23.              Hendy, Philip G., 1977, [as above]

24.              Jarratt, Anthony R., 1974-1981, Manuscript Caving Log, Vol. II [photocopies in BEC Library and Wells Museum Library]: T he entry given in this log book is dated 1st June 1974 where Jarratt found: ' ... that M[artin] B[ishop] & Co. had opened up the top of the open rift - some 20-30 feet deep.'

25.              Anon, 1976, From the Log WCC JnI14(l63)2(Feb)

26.              Hendy, Philip G., 1979, Waldegrave Swallet - another chapter in the saga. WCC Jnl 15(l77)156

27.              Anon, 1980, Council of South em Caving Clubs AGM Report. WCC Jnl 16(l81)33(May)

28.              Anon, 1986, From the Log WCC Jnl 19(211) 17(Dec)

29.              Balch, H.E., 1927, Mendip Nature Research Committee Report for 1926. MNRC Rep (19) in WNHAS Report for 1926, p. 27-30, illus.