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Editorial

No, you weren’t missed off the list for the November B.B. – There wasn’t one.

This is the first time since we took over the running of the B.B. that we missed an issue – just as we were in sight of beating the record for the regularity of the publication, too! The thing that finally had us baffled was a series of accidents to the duplicator.  After four hours work; nearly a ream of scrap paper, and not one decently printed page to show for it, we finally gave up.

However, good has come of all this.  This B.B. and, we hope, ALL FUTURE B.B.’s will be printed on a modern, all electric, dreaded automatic machine.  The pages of this one that were already printed were done at the rate of one page every four minutes.  This compares with at least two men working quarter of an hour on the old machine for the same result.  All those long suffering members which have had the bad luck to handle the club duplicator will know what a wonderful feeling it was to stand beside the machine and watch identical printed copies coming out like machine gun bullets!

November’s B.B. was to have been the last one to have the now familiar blue cover.  This distinction is now taken by the October issue. This copy is the last one to be printed on the old size – quarto- and we hope, in honour of the occasion, to make this the biggest B.B. ever to be published so far.  You will consider that this is written before it is all printed, you realise that we are sticking our necks out at this stage.  However, we hope it turns out all right, and it only remains for us, on behalf of all members of the B.B. Editorial board to wish all our readers a very Happy Christmas.


 

Caving Log

For September, October and November 1959.

5th Sep.

Swildon’s.  Photographic trip round Upper Series.  Party, N. Brooks, Ron Woodford, R. Hancock, C, Gallen and G. Hobby.

6th Sep.

Swildon’s II.  Tourist trip. Party, N. Brooks, and as for previous trip above.  It was found that the guide wire in Sump I was corroded and it was broken on the return trip.  There is now no guide wire.

12th Sep.

Agen Allwedd.  Party, N. Petty and George Honey.  Photographic trip to Main Chamber

13th Sep.

Swildon’s.  Party, D. Greenwood, J. Davey (B.P.C.) A. Whittingham, R. Wakefield, P. Davies and Norman Humphries.  Tourist trip to Sump I.  Then up into Tratman’s Temple and St. Paul’s Series and Mud Sump to head of Blue Pencil Passage.  Still a moderate amount of water about.

16th Sep.

Swildon’s.  Party, D. Greenwood, J. Davey (B.P.C.).  Photographic trip to the end of Barne’s Loop.  Still no water until the bottom of the 40’ pitch.

17th Sep.

Swildon’s.  Party as above.  Upper Series.  Down via the Wet Way and out via the Long Dry Way.

19th Sep.

Swildon’s.  Party, R. Lewis, A. Knight and three visitors.  Down the Wet Way to Sump I.  A very pleasant trip with no difficulties.

20th Sep.

St. Cuthbert’s.  Party, Alan Coase, Colin Knight and Norman Petty.  To sump via Upper Traverse and High Chambers.  Five inches of airspace in the sump.

21st Sep.

Swildon’s.  Party, J. Davey and D.A. Greenwood.  Down to Sump I.  A little water still going down the 20.  Sump dive was enjoyable, if cold.

23rd Sep.

St. Cuthbert’s.  B. Prewer, John Davey and D.A. Greenwood.  Quick evening to sump via Cascade Passage and Fingers.  Back via Curtain Chamber.

27th Sep.

Swildon’s.  Tourist trip to Mud Sump in dry conditions.  One of the party, using a “new method” for traversing the double pots, had a good soak!  Roger Burky and 6 members of B.C.S.S.

10th. Oct.

Swildon’s.  Party, Nigel Hallett, Colin Knight and two characters from Axbridge – names unknown.  Tourist trip to Series IV.  We took our time on the way in, with the usual struggle down Blue Pencil.  Sump IV was muddy and “cowsh” coming from the aven – from DIG?  A medium speed on the return trip.

7th Nov.

Swildon’s.  Ian Dear and some Rover Scouts frtom Weymouth.  Ian acted as Safety Officer.  Easy trip.  Lack of noise from the water made the cave a little eerie.

21st Nov.

St. Cuthbert’s.  Norman Petty and Roger Stenner went down to put a rawlbolt into the Wire Rift.  The rift was also measured for future wire to be fitted, also sites for more bolts found.

Note on the above.  A wave of MODESTY appears to have broken out amongst our active cares.  Why not hand YOUR name down to posterity by recording your trip in the log book? Apart from the fact that the club rules require you to, of course!


 

Letters to the Editor

9 Burleigh House
Beufort Street

Chelsea
SW3

Dear Sir,

Regarding your comments in the August B.B. about the origin of the word ‘ouijee’.  This particular spelling has been used by the Chelsea Speleological Society and London Speleological Group from time immoral and it has on occasioned some research to find its history.

In the classic case of Jones v Claire, the judge at one stage asked, “What is a ouijee?” and learned council opined that it might be the corruption of the word ‘ouija’, a board to obtain spirit messages, but did not suggest what the connection might be. 

Greaves “Famous Oaths” quotes the case, and adds the information the ouija is derived form the French and German words for ‘yes’.

Recent researches at Oxford have now produced the correct connotation. Dr. Caoutchouc, as famous for his revolting personal habits as for his epigean exploits, explains the matter in a manuscript ‘Caves and Orgies’.  If Martel is the father of Speleology, then Caoutchouc must have been the grandfather, for he formed the Exploration Societe Speleologique d’Orleans – or ESSO – in 1850, with Martel as a junior member.  He recalls that a member, whose name has been lost in iniquity, once achieved a degree of notoriety by continually saying, “I know that!” when anything was explained to him.  Thereafter, he was always referred to as “I know that!” or “Oui, j’y sais.”  The term eventually came to mean all newcomers and was shortened to “Oui j’y.”

It is not known who first brought it to England, but no doubt it was amongst the more repeatable phrases that floated up to the early lifeliners at Gaping Ghyll.  English has no sound to match ‘j’y’ and it has become altered in consequence to ‘jee’.  Similarly the ‘goon’ in goon suit is a corruption of the French Goudron, meaning pitch and ‘trog’ is an abbreviation of the French ‘trougge’ meaning of a ruddy countenance, i.e. bloody cheek.

I am available to answer any similar entomological problems.

Yours etc.
Harry Pearman,
Editor, C.S.S./L.S.G. Journal

Editor’s Note.    The name ‘Pearman’ is, of course, a corruption of the name ‘Pairman’, meaning a man who makes a hobby of pairing unlikely words together.

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32 Chaworth Road
West
Bridgeford
Nottingham

Sir,

Perhaps you would be good enough to print this letter in our esteemed bull.  B.E.C. members are welcome at the above address with b. & b. GRATIS – WELL, NOT QUITE.  Let’s say 40/- single, 92/6 double.  Comfortable beds on coal in cellar.  Homely smell of gas in cellar supplied at nine pence extra.  Food, miscellaneous and various.  Drink – 1953 Hock; 1952 Barsac; 19?? Chianti; 1958 Mendip Elderflower (Petty/Stenner/Falshaw).  Regret no screech, only a mock Norfolk brew.  Wild beer only on draught, various brands of bottles available.  Free parking (no lights) in front of genuine corrugated iron Bethel wot don’t ‘arf rattle when it rains.  Cigarettes by Abdul.  Patrons are requested to leave quietly when the landlord calls for the rent. Recreational pursuits: -Swallet digging in the back garden – Price one shilling an hour.  Next year we plan to hold a grand swallet digging week with prizes for the most attractively finished plot.  Potatoes, cabbages, etc. are to be supplied free for putting round the edges.  L.B.C.R. unknown; A.A., six stars at least.  R.A.C. ditto. Running water everywhere.

                                    Cheers
                                     Chris F and Wife

Editor’s note:     We were, unfortunately, unable to reproduce the genuine thumbprint which was superimposed on Chris’s signature on the original.  N.B. We understand that the abbreviation L.C.B.R. stands for Lady Chatterbox’s Rating.

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Miners Hostel
Huntley
New Zealand

I spent last Easter hunting with a Maori friend and had a terrific weekend.  The country was beautiful and we bagged 3 deer and one pig, not to mention shooting the trout in the lake, and drinking a fair quantity of beer.  My friend’s folk held a ‘hange’ for us, which roughly translated means a big oven.  A hole is dug in the ground and a fire lit in it. Then stones are put in the fire and when it has died down, the ashes are taken out and the meat and vegetables put on the hot stones.  It is then covered with a cloth and earth.  The meal is then left to cook for about two hours.  The ‘hange’ consisted of two sheep and half a pig.  About thirty friends and relatives ate it and there was not a single scrap left!  The pakika’s contribution was a fair quantity of ale and a good time was had by all.

The hunting was all done on horseback.  I had never been on a horse before, but I was persuaded that there was nothing to it. It was fair enough on the flat, but the guide quite suddenly disappeared down the side of a hill as steep as the side of Snowdon.  Needless to say, I finished up flat on my back at the bottom.  However, I had a wonderful time.

Incidentally, I came across a strange thing here.  Vicky, my friend, used the word ‘weegee’ for trippers.  I don’t think it is Maori, but it may have originated here.

                                    John Lamb.

The last letter was part of a letter written by our own New Zealand Lamb to Ian.  Johnny said we could publish it and it is good to hear that he is enjoying himself out there.  What about the derivation of the word ‘weegee’ now, Harry (ed.)

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39 Colbrook Ave
Hayes
Middlesex

Dear Sir,

I should like to say how pleased I am to receive the B.B. up here.  It helps to keep me informed on club matters and also has a circulation of about twelve L.S.G./C.S.S. members.  Now for some news.

From the 24th July to the 3rd August last, some real effort was put into the third choke in Agen Allwedd. To date, there have been three trips. The third choke consists of a very large boulder fall blocking the streamway, which is this shape: -

 

The fall is very unsafe, and explosives may have to be used to settle it.

                                    Yours
                                    “Scottie” (B.M. Scott)

Thanks Scottie.  I expect your news is a little out of date by now, but it is very welcome as we have no account written yet on any of the club Aggy Aggy trips.  We hope top be able to print something soon!

Pyrenees 1960 - Summer School.

A fortnight's holiday course on the painted caves of France will be held in August 1960, based at Foix, in Ariege. Accommodation of hostel type; food; transport from Bristol to Foix; etc are all included in a charge not to exceed £35.  This is being organised by the W.E.A. through Ted Mason and provisional applications MUST be made to P.C. Fryd, W.E.A. office, 7 Nicholas St,, Bristol 1,  by December 31st at the latest.

Mendip Rescue Organization.

Some years ago, a list was prepared giving details of members who would be prepared to turn out in the event of a ¬large scale rescue operation.  It is intended to revise this list and bring it up to date. Would any member so inclined please give me full details of address; home and business telephone numbers, and transport available.

K.S. Gardner.   (M.R.O. Rep.)

New Addresses.

Since printing the list of members at the end of this B.B., some of the unknown addresses have come to light they are:-

            276       J.M. Stafford, 24 Alma Road, Clifton, Bristol 8.
            342       R.J. Price, 2 Weekes Road, Bishop Sutton, Somerset.
            104       M. Hannam, "Myndeep" Wstward Drive , Mariners Gardens, Pill, Somerset.

This leaves Peter Stewart, Roger & Daphne Stenner and Barry Woof whose addresses we are at present unable to publish.  These will follow in the January B.B.


 

Belfry Binder

By “Sett”

When the Editor asked me to publish the recipe for Belfry Binder, I realised that there must be many of the present club members who have never tasted this nutritious dish, and many more who do not know of its origin or raison d’etre.

Priddy Stew – to use its original name – was first developed at Maine’s Barn, around the end of the war when food was rationed and meat, in particular, was not readily available.  The advantages of Priddy Stew as it was originally prepared were fourfold.  Firstly, a large number of persons can be catered for out of one pot, hence only one source of heat is required.  Secondly, when correctly cooked, it can be eaten with a fork.  Thirdly, it can be made with practically any available ingredients, and lastly, it can be cooked before going underground and warmed up ready for eating while the party is changing.

By the time the original Belfry was built on its original site, where the Shepton tackle hut now stands, Belfry Binder, as it had become known, was cooked almost every weekend, Most cavers could obtain some food off the ration, but these additions were not usually such that one man could eat them.  One caver might, for instance, bring a tin of corned beef or spam and no sugar, while another brought sugar but no butter.  In these circumstances, the preparation of Belfry Binder was an ideal answer to the catering problem.

By the time the Belfry was moved to its present site, there were several good shots in the club and rabbit became the traditional meat content.  Unfortunately, this source no longer exists, and we have to use tinned or butcher’s meat.  One other traditional ingredient, curry, also seems to be out of favour these days, but tastes vary and it will probably come back in the future.

As previously stated, there are no fixed ingredients for Belfry Binder, so a typical recipe would be given.  It was left up to the initiative of the cook to ring the changes of the various vegetables used.  A word of warning here.  Don’t try to use fish and various members of the cabbage family are best left out. Each person will eat the equivalent of about 17 ounces of raw material at an approximate cost of 1/- per head. This weight should be made up as follows: - 2oz of stewing steak; 7oz of potatoes; 2oz of onions; 6oz of other vegetables, well assorted and preferably fresh.  When totting up the total quantity of stew required, don’t forget those underground and any more latecomers; count these in ands then add a couple more for people you forgot.  The large aluminium pan at the Belfry, when full, hold sufficient for 17 people, so a typical recipe for this number will be given.  The pan will be full to within half an inch of the brim with this quantity.

Ingredients

2lbs Stewing Steak
2lbs Onions
2lbs Peas
1lb tomatoes, condiments and thickening
8lbs Potatoes
2lbs Carrots
1lb Beetroot

Method

Put 1½ inches of water in the pan with two level dessertspoonfuls of salt and one of pepper. Put the pan on the stove and light the gas.  Dice the meat into half inch cubes with a sharp knife and put them in the pan. Scrape and slice the carrots, and dice the beetroots and add to the pot.  At this stage, clean and add any other root vegetables except the potatoes. The preparation of the meat should take about ten minutes, by which time the water should be boiling.  The first lot of vegetables will take another twenty minutes.  During the next fifty minutes, continue preparing the other vegetables and then add all but half the potatoes.  Twenty minutes, add the remaining potatoes.  From this point, stir continuously until the last lot of potatoes are cooked.  This will take a further twenty minutes or so.  Just before serving, make two tablespoonfuls of bisto into paste and add to the stew.  Serve one large enamel mug full per person.  The stew is fully cooked when the wooden spoon will stand vertically for at least fifteen seconds.


 

Lady Chatterbox Cover

By Ann Gardner

We were pleased to receive recently, yet another of those revealing descriptions of how the other half lives.  This is the third in the series describing the Stately Clifton House of B.E.C. Members.

On Monday the 16th October 1959, BY INVITATION, Lord and Lady Chatterbox visited the home of Messrs Mosspan, Harvey and Tarling.  Upon entering, we were enticed into the kitchen and teacloths were thrust at us. We ignored them and proceeded to watch the Washing Up Ceremony, which is usually performed on alternate Sundays during the close season.  The decorations in the kitchen are many and varied with 29 pairs of tatty socks and 5 old ones.  Cooking appears to be done in B.P. Energol, and an equal amount of milk and pure meths appears to be drunk in this establishment.  We were offered some rather lumpy custard which was, however, politely declined, owing to an aversion to lumpy custard in any shape or form. The ceiling of this room is ‘orrid green and the place of honour is taken by a large gas stove (price 2/6) two regency type velvet chairs and three broken bits.  Proceeding into the hall, one is amazed at the number of climbing boots that can be used by so few feet.  If there were the number of feet per boot that there are boots, the number of socks in the kitchen would be easily explained!  Two hot water bottles only were in evidence.  It is presumed that the odd bed uses the two flat irons which were seen as foot warmers.  The lounge, two bedrooms and the bathroom open off the hall, which is the size of the average home’s living room.

The lounge is tastefully furnished with a dartboard, two gin bottles, five twisted red candles, two radios and one record player, one of which was working.  A novel idea was the hula hoop reclining in one corner.  After careful consideration, I could not see who uses it.  The floral decorations were somewhat unusual for a bachelor flat, comprising three drooping chrysanthemums and one deader.  At the far end of the room – the size is somewhat after the fashion of Mr. Collins’s residence – and one can walk for miles, a lonely beer mat poised upon the picture rail peered blearily at the one bar electric fire which valiantly pits its strength against the wintry blasts.  There are the usual chairs and bits scattered about and the walls are neatly papered with posters pinched from far away places like Severn Beach, Pill and Minehead.

The bedrooms are not very large.  Mr Tarling’s is very bachelorish.  Messrs Mossman and Harvey share a slightly larger room.  All there beds sagged somewhat in the middle, and Mr. Mossman pointed out the notches on each bed.  (I wonder what for!)  Messrs Mossman and Harvey have an interior window into the hall.  They take it in turns to watch the assorted climbing gear in the hall.  After all, it might get up and walk out one day.  The bathroom is the most gay and tastefully decorated room in the whole flat. It is mostly a ghastly blue with repulsive maroon ironwork.  To add to this, it has pink walls and green bits here and there.  The towels on that occasion were mauve and the bath is verdigris green with decayed soap trimmings.  In short, not a room in which one would wish to meditate on the future of the world.  We thanked Mr. Mossman for his ‘co-operation’ (he had no choice anyway) and left to visit Mr and Mrs Stafford.  We arrived and told that they were out.  Never mind. We don’t give up that easily!

Puzzle

Two cavers were holding an inquest on the seasonal festivities the night before.

 “I drank one more pint than you did,” said one, “but I can’t remember how many I drank.”

“We both drank beer and screech,” replied the other, “I remember thinking that the number of pints of beer I drank, the number of pints of screech I drank, the number of pints of beer you drank and the number of pints of screech you drank would make 210 if they were multiplied together.”

“That doesn’t help very much!”

“No, but one of us drank an even number of pints of screech and you drank more beer than I did.”

“Did I”

“Yes, you mentioned it as we were walking back to the Belfry.”

How many pints of beer and screech did each of them drink?


 

A Note on Continuous Flash Powder Igniters

By P.A.E. Stewart

During the course of a recent visit to South Australia, I had the good fortune to make contact with the Cave Exploration Group of South Australia, or C.E.G.S.A.

After a lot of talking shop on cave exploration, and caving matters in general, we came to the subject of equipment.  They had shown me a large number of excellent colour slides of the Nullarber Caves, and had mentioned the DIPROTODON.  Upon further questioning, the following facts were forthcoming: -

The DIPROTODON, a sketch which can be found on the next page, is an instrument named after an ancient marsupial hippopotamus, the bones of which are sometimes found in caves.  It is a continuous flash powder dispenser, giving an improved illumination efficiency by ejecting the flash powder though a flame of burning methylated spirits.

Using the DIPROTODON, one may not only take flash photos but also continuous cine films.  It would appear that the instrument was designed by the Hon. Henry Pairlie-Cunningham of the Victoria Cave Exploration Society.

Basically, it consists of a meteorological balloon attached to the end of a motorcycle exhaust pipe. The balloon has an attachment for inflation by means of a lilo pump.  The degree of inflation necessary varies with the length of run, but one should always ensure that the air exhausts before the flash powder to prevent a flashback.  The outflow of air is controlled by a valve operated by the trigger.  This trigger also controls the flash powder admittance valve, which lies at the base of the hopper.  The hopper is sealed at the bottom by a plug.

During operation, the air and powder valves are opened, and powder is blown out by the air from the balloon through the exhaust pipe and fishtail silencer.  Below the fishtail is a tray filled with methylated spirits which is fired before using the diptrodoton.  The flash powder is ejected through this hot flame and thus ignited at a higher temperature than would otherwise be obtained.

It would appear that the user would be faced with a terrific glare and would need to use welder’s goggles or some other protection for the eyes.  A better solution would be to provide the diprotodon with some form of reflector.  If any reader should build one of these devices, I should be very interested to know of the factor by which the normal guide number for flash powder is increased.

I should like to thank Bob Sexton of C.E.G.S.A. for his kindness in giving me the details of the diprotodon in Adelaide.

The Hookah

A smaller version of the diprotodon was described to me by Les Southwell of the Victorian Cave Exploration Society.  This was named the Hookah, for its similarity with the Indian pipe, though this one is rather more potent.

It comprises at Kodachrome tin with a hole ⅛” x ⅛” cut in the side.  On the top of the tin is a sweated copper tube with a mouthpiece of plastic or rubber tubing.  The copper tube extends downwards almost to the base of the tin, and terminates in a nozzle.  Below this nozzle, the flash powder lies in a deflecting bowl, on blowing through the tube, flash powder is agitated and ejected through the hole or jet at the side. This passes over a wick which has been soaked in methylated spirits and ignited.

Results are similar to those obtained by the diprotodon although on a smaller scale.

It would appear that both the above devices are prone to flashback, and some flame trap should be incorporated.  The Hookah seems prone to detonation of its contents, and great care should be exercised in experiments involving any device of this type.

I should be very interested in the results obtained with either of these instruments.  It is beleved that one may exist in the U.K. and belong to C.E.G.S.A. members Ken and June Lyon at 42 St. John’s Road, Walthamstow, London.

Editors Note:     Some years ago, a bloke called Johnny Rundell and myself played about with a gadget which continuously burnt magnesium ribbon.  I can describe the main pints of this if anyone is interested.

 

Proposed Combined Clubs Foreign Caving Expedition.

There appear to be many clubs who are anxious to partake in such an expedition for their summer holiday. The main advantages of a combined expedition would seem to be: -

1.                  Each club could lend some tackle to the expedition and is should be possible to tackle a major cave system.

2.                  Cheap travel rates could be obtained by block party booking.

3.                  There should be a good chance of obtaining a financial grant for such an expedition.

As a first step, the Northern Pennine Club propose to hold an initial meeting on December 5th, the purpose of which will be to elect an organising committee for the expedition. As soon as this committee has been elected, the N.P.C. as such will withdraw from direct organisation.

Should any B.E.C. members be interested, the N.P.C. will be pleased to send the club details of any further developments.  Members of the B.E.C. should contact Bob Bagshaw if they are interested, and he will then write for further details.


 

Crossword

1

 

2

 

3

 

4

 

5

 

6

 

7

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

10

11

 

 

12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

 

19

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

 

21

 

 

22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

24

 

 

25

 

 

26

 

 

 

 

 

 

27

 

 

28

 

 

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

31

 

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

33

 

 

 

 

 

34

 

 

 

35

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

36

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Across

(1)        Presumably these did not leap or twitch! (5,4,6)
(9)        A high flying bird. (5)
(10)       See 19 down.
(12)       The club voted against one in this B.B. (5)
(13)       “No ruddy use…..” (3)
(14)       A dexterous move. (5)
(15)       Mary in the garden was related thus to her questioner. (5)
(16)       These of the earth are familiar! (5)
(22)       Contrasted in rhyme with an insect. (7,6)
(26)       Advice from Gil? (5)
(28)       Drink, or state the next morning! (5)
(30)       Presumably written on a brass plate. (1,4)
(31)       28.11 Commemorates a small scale variation of this. (3)
(33)       Another dexterous move. (5)
(34)       Reilly had one. (3)
(35)       We get some of these ‘upon the ordinary route’ (2-3)
(36)       The squire had not gone far when this occurred. (2.7.3.3)

Down

(1)        There’s a downtown………where the boys all go. (7)
(2)        I had a welsh bother of the shortened form of this name (6)
(3)        When 36 across occurred, it must have been quite a this in the passenger’s life! (5)
(4)        The man who talked to Ivy had no this. (4)
(5)        Found in a PealoO’Bells. (5)
(6)        Bert ‘Iggins was undoubtedly a this man. (5)
(7)        Descriptive of the tools associated with 1 across. (3,3)
(8)        Age of the passenger in 36 across. (7)
(11)       Vehicle associated with Plymouth. (7,4)
(16)       Oldfellows hold them. (5)
(17)       These 16 downs are sometimes seen on the 30 down. (5)
(18)       What ‘Enery did. (3)
(19)       See 10 across.
(20)       A type of this is heard at the Hunters sometimes. (3)
(21)       Two brothers owned one. (3)
(23)       A woman of Hitchin did this. (7)
(24)       He’d be made of wood without his head, but presumably he wasn’t.! (7)
(25)       Worn by 27 down types. (6)
(29)       Did the squire say this before lifting his hat? (5)
(30)       On which 24 down presumably lay. (5)
(31)       No need for the leading seaman to do this. (4)
(32)       These clues are useless if you can’t this. (4)


 

Annual List of Club Member’s’ Names and Addresses

This list which follows is that used by our Postal Department.  If your name is not on this list, or your address is incorrect, please let us know, as that may be the reason why your B.B. has been late or not sent at all.

418

S.F. Alway

102 Whiteladies Road, Clifton, Bristol 8

306

T Andrews

135 Danson Road, Bexley, Kent

412

T.O. Asquith

70 Albert Road, Pellon, Halifax

236

T. Attwood

4 Bridge Road, Shortwood, Nr. Mangotsfield, Bristol

20

R.J. Bagshaw

699 Wells Road, Knowle, Bristol 4

392

M.J. Baker

Morello, Ash Lane, Wells, Somerset

358

D.J. Balcombe

26 Bennett gardens, Norbury, London SW16

368

N. Barrington

53 St. George’s Drive, London SW1

290

R. Bater

2 Upper Perry Hill, Southville, Bristol 3

214

R. Bennett

3 Russetts Cottages, Backwell Common, Somerset.

390

J. Bennett

3 Russetts Cottages, Backwell Common, Somerset

370

W.L. Beynon

Lower Lodge, Weston Park Road, Weston park, Bath, Somerset

417

P. Bird

City Museum, Queens Road, Bristol

364

P.M. Blogg

1 Ridgeway Park, Ridgeway, Glos

336

A. Bonner

45 St. Alban’s Road, Westbury Park, Bristol 6

145

Miss S. Bowden-Lyle

51 Coronation Road, Bristol 3

320

F.R. Brown

13 Alexandra Road, Bath, Somerset

393

R.G. Brown

45 Blundell’s Road, Tilehurst, Reading, Berkshire

384

R.D. Brown

3 George Street, Taunton, Somerset

320

N Brooks

392 Victoria Road, Ruislip, Middlesex.

209

P. Burt

3 Manor House, Rothamsted, Harpendon, Herts

190

Mrs P. Burt

3 Manor House, Rothamsted, Harpendon, Herts

389

R. Burky

54 Sedgemore Road, Combe Down, Bath, Somerset

361

B. Busson

57 Southcote Rise, Ruislip, Middlesex

36

R. Brain

4 Lees Hill, Kingswood, Bristol

429

R Casling

51 Oakdale Road, Downend, Bristol

366

B.R. Chamberlain

102 Egerton Road, Bishopston, Bristol 7

231

N.D. Clark

3 St. John’s Crescent, Wainfelin, Ponytpool, Mon.

398

A.C. Coase

18 Headington Road, London SW18

211

Mrs C. Coase

P.O. Box 1510,m Ndola, Northern Rhodesia

89

S.J. Collins

33 Richmond Terrace, Clifton, Bristol 8

395

Cochrane

23368196 L/Cpl, Gordon Barracks, Bulford, Wiltshire

377

D. Cooke-Yarborough.

The Beeches, St. Briavels, Lydney, Glos

416

A. Colburn

69 North end, Clutton, Bristol

71

A.J. Crawford

3 Hillside, Harefield, Uxbridge, Middlesex

401

M. Cunningham

103 Staplegrove Road, Taunton, Somerset

405

F.G. Darbon

43 Arthur Henderson House, Fulham Road, Fulham, London, S.W.6

427

A.C. Davidson

57 Halsbury Road, Bristol 6

423

L.W. Dawes

113 Brooklands, Avenue, Sidcup, Kent

350

Mrs A. Davies

New Bungalow, Hancot Lane, Pentre, Queensferry, Flintshire

424

P.V. Davy

15 Hamilton Gardens, St. John’s Wood, London NW8

226

I. Dear

76 Reforne, Portland, Dorset

164

K.C. Dobbs

85 Fox Road, Pinhoe, Exeter, Devon

325

A.J. Dunn

70 The Crescent, Henleze, Bristol

331

J.A. Etough

116 Newbridge Road, Brislington, Bristol

322

B.M. Ellis

Oakmead, Cher, Minehaed, Somerset

263

D. England

28 Mendip Road, Bedminster, Bristol 3

426

P. Eyles

56 Cairns Road, Bristol 6

232

C. Falshaw

32 Chaworth Road, West Bridgeford, Nottingham

394

Mrs C. Falshaw

32 Chaworth Road, West Bridgeford, Nottingham

371

A. Fincham

Leeds University Union, Leeds 2

269

T.E. Fletcher

The Old Mill House, Barnack, Stamford, Lincs

278

G.A. Fowler

77 Kingshill Road, Knowle, Bristol 4

385

R. Francis

91a Oxford Gardens, Kensington, London SW10

404

A. Francis

53 St. Thomas Street, Wells, Somerset

251

K.S. Gardner

10a Royal Park, Clifton, Bristol 8

388

J. Goodwin

11 Glanarm Walk, Brislington, Bristol 4

434

D.A. Greenwood

53 Lingwood Road, Clapton, London E5

346

G.H. Griffiths

164 St. Johns Lane, Bristol 3

239

D. Gwinnel

34 Gatehouse Close, Withywood, Bristol 3

432

N.P. Hallett

67 Blendon Road, Bexley, Kent

104

M. Hannam

Address to follow

304

C.W. Harris

14 Market Place, Wells, Somerset

400

R. Hartley

19 Cowper Road, Redland, Bristol 6

4

D. Hassell

‘Hill House’, Moorlynch, Bridgwater, Somerset

372

M.J. Healey

24 Water Lane, Brislington, Bristol 4

373

S.M. Hobbs

135 Doncaster Road, Southmead, Bristol

387

G. Honey

Giddings Caravan Site, Hemingford Grey, Huntingdon

406

D. Hoskyns

128 Woodland Gardens, Isleworth, Middlesex

97

J. Ifold

Leigh House, Nempnett, Chew Stoke, Somerset.

150

P. Ifold

Sunnyside, Rectory Lane, Compton Martin, Somerset

363

M. Isles

33 Greenleaze, Knowle Park, Bristol 4

374

J.J. Jacobs

126 Bridge Lane, Golders Green, London NW11

279

J. Jenkins

49 Stoneleigh Road, Knowle, Bristol 4

340

R.L. Jenkins

5 North Street, Downend, Bristol

51

A.C. Johnson

Warren Cottage, Station Road, Flax Bourton, Somerset

225

M. Jones

389 Filton Avenue, Horfield, Bristol 7

267

Mrs M. Jones

389 Filton Avenue, Horfield, Bristol 7

285

U. Jones

3 Durham Street, Eslwich Road, Newcastle-on- Tyne.

433

J.F. Kembury

2 Newent Avenue, Kingswood, Bristol

289

D. Kemp

17 Becmead Avenue, Streatham, SW16

316

R.S. King

1 Lynmouth Road, Bristol 2

413

A.F.. Kitchen

1st Battalion Northamptonshire Regiment, B.F.P.O. 69

430

C.G. Knight

64 Norton Way, Isleworth, Middlesex

332

D.J. Lacy

31 Devon Grove, Whitehall, Bristol 5

260

J. Lamb

365 Filton Avenue, Horfield, Bristol 7

429

R. Lewis

Roseacre, Limpley Stoke, Bath, Somerset

275

C.A. Marriott

718 Muller Road, Eastville, Bristol 5

414

T. Marston

54 Pear Street, Kingston, Halifax, Yorkshire

106

E.J. Mason

11 Kendon Drive Wellington Hill West, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol

383

P.J. Miller

130 Longmead Avenue, Bishopston, Bristol 7

334

D.W. Mitchell

2 Selwood Road, Frome, Somerset

339

G. Mossman

5 Arlington Gardens, Arlington Villas, Clifton, Bristol 8

308

K. Murray

17 Harrington Gardens, South Kensington, London, S.W.7

386

A. Nash

62 Silverhill Road, Henbury, Bristol

329

T.W. Neil

Orenda, Bradley Cross, Cheddar, Somerset

330

Mrs T.W. Neil

Orenda, Bradley Cross, Cheddar, Somerset

362

F. Nicholson

Fullbrook Cottage, 52 Friggles Street, Rodden Down, Frome, Somerset

 

T. O’Flaherty

Oldfield Park Lodge, Wells Road, Bath, Somerset

396

M.A. Palmer

Cathedral Coffee Tavern, St. Thomas Street, Wells, Somerset

245

J.S. Pembury

Grove View, Hambrook, Bristol

327

J. Pengram

4 Moffats Lane, Brookman’s Park, Hatfield, Herts

22

L. Peters

21 Melbury Road, Knowle, Bristol 4

160

N. Petty

12 Bankside Road, Brislington, Bristol

146

T. Pink

53 Burnthwaite Road, Fulham, London SW6

56

G. Platten

‘Rutherfield’, Fernhill Lane, New Milton, Hants.

337

B. Prewer

14 Egerton Road, Bath, Somerset

342

R.J. Price

New address to follow

291

D. Radmore

2 Dunkeld Road, Filton, Bristol

241

A.L.C. Rice

13 Wades Road, Filton, Bristol

391

P.A. Richards

164 Eastcote Road, Ruislip, Middlesex

344

T. Rich

Frontier Geophysical, Party 8, 207, 61st Avenue, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

411

K. Robbins

82 Eaton Valley Road, Luton, Beds

258

C.H.G. Rees

2 Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol

157

Miss J.P. Rollason

157 Pen Park Road, Redland, Bristol 6

367

J. Rowley

52 Granby Hill, Clifton, Bristol 8

240

A. Sandall

35 Beauchamp Road, Bishopston, Bristol 7.

359

Mrs. A. Sandall

35 Beauchamp Road, Bishopston, Bristol 7.

237

B.M. Scott

39 Colbrook Avenue, Hayes, Middlesex

78

R. Setterington

4 Galmington Lane, Taunton, Somerset

356

Mrs R. Setterington

4 Galmington Lane, Taunton, Somerset

312

R. Setterington

86 Grand Drive, Raynes Park London SW20

403

A. Sidall

143 Love Lane, Heaton Norris, Stockport, Cheshire

425

J. Simonds

31 Springfield Lane, Teddington, Middlesex

414

C. Smith

48 Windsor Road Leyton, London E10

402

D.G. Soutar

12 Loring Road, Isleworth, Middlesex

276

J. Stafford

New address to follow

38

Mrs. I. Stanbury

74, Redcatch Road, Knowle, Bristol. 4.

1

T.H. Stanbury

6 Aubrey Road, Bristol 3

365

R. Stenner

New address to follow

381

Mrs. Stenner

New address to follow

60

P.A.E. Stewart

New address to follow

284

A. Thomas

Sandhill Special Residential School, Bishops Lydeard, Taunton, Somerset

379

D. Thomas

23585478, 58/18 Troop, 5th Royal Tank Regiment, Catterick Camp, Yorks

409

G.E. Todd

86 Kingsholme Road, Kingswood, Bristol

78

J. Tompsett

51 Rothmans Avenue, Great Baddow, Chelmsford, Essex

80

Mrs. D. Tompsett

51 Rothmans Avenue, Great Baddow, Chelmsford, Essex

326

E. Towler

11 St. Phillips Road, London E8

382

S. Tuck

Gently, East Knoyle, Salisbury, Wiltshire

79

R.M. Wallis

Swildons, 343 Upton Lane, Widnes, Lancs

397

M. Wheadon

2 Hulbert Place, St. Thomas Street, wells, Somerset

399

P.C. Wilson

Woodland Cottage, Wrington, Somerset

175

J. Waddon

7 Haydon Road, Taunton, Somerset

420

R. Winch

1 Stanley Villa, Crewkerne, Chard, Somerset

416

B. Windridge

71 Windfield Crescent, Lawrence Weston, Bristol

435

B. Woof

Address to follow

341

R.A. Woodford

80 Torrington Road, Ruislip, Middlesex

418

E.A. Woodwell

50 Glanfield Road, Beckenham, Kent

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OUR COVER. this year, for those who may be interested in such things, were drawn by a pukka commercial artist and printed by the offset litho process.  Considering that, as far as we know, he has never been down a cave, we think he got the 'atmosphere' very well, although his  cavers look too neatly dressed to be authentic!

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WE REGRET that one tradition of the Christmas B.B. of recent years - the inclusion of a poem by Sid Hobbs - has not been possible.  Rumour hath it that we might get one early in the new year.


 

The Use of a Barometer in Cave Surveying

By Roger Stenner

The altitude, or height above sea level, of a point, is a function of the air pressure at that point compared to that at sea level, the temperature and humidity of the air, and the local value of gravity.  Allowing for these quantities, the general formula connecting height and pressure reduces to: -

 

H =   +

 

Where: -

H

T

Po

go

gn

Wn

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

Increase in altitude between points 1 and 2.

Mean temperature in Fo

Air pressure in mb at point 1.

Air pressure in mb at point 2

Local value of gravity in C.G.S.W.

Mean value of gravity in C.G.S.W.

Water Vapour Pressure at to x Relative Humidity

Where h is measured in feet and Pm is the mean pressure between the two points in the same units as Water vapour Pressure.

Knowing the latitude and altitude of a cave in metres, we have:

G(sea level) = 978.85(1 + 0.005288sin2N - 0.000006sin22N)       where N is the latitude.

 

go = g(sea level) – 0.000309H + 0.000042kH        where H is the altitude and k is the density.

 

The correction for gravity is usually negligible, and is less than 0.1%.  A temperature error of 5oF gives an error of 0.9% and neglecting the humidity factor gives, at 50oF and 100% humidity, an error of 0.8%.  As an error of 0.05mb, one part in 20,000, gives an error of about 1.5 feet, it is most important that the barometer used should be accurately calibrated.  If a mercury barometer is used to calibrate it, it is important to apply all the necessary corrections.

A capsule aneroid barometer, loaned to the club for this purpose by Messrs Mechanism of Croydon, was used by the author, assisted by George Honey, in St. Cuthbert’s in August last. A series of readings were taken which it is hoped will add to the known data on the cave and help evaluate the usefulness of this barometer.

A number of selected stations, the air pressure and the time were noted.  The air pressure at the entrance was noted both on entering and on leaving the cave, so that a correction curve could be drawn, assuming a linear rate of change. To further check the method, readings were duplicated at one station in the cave, with a long time interval between the two of them.

The air temperature in the cave was found to be 10.5oC and temperature measurements have shown this value to be fairly constant. R.A. Setterington, on the 11th August, showed the temperature of most of the important risings on Mendip to be 10.5oC. The relative humidity in the cave has previously been shown to lie between 99% and 100% throughout the cave (See B.B. Nos 118 and 120).

The scale of the micrometer attached to the instrument enabled readings of 0.05mb to be distinguished. This is the equivalent to a vertical error of 1.5 feet.  Results were as shown overleaf: -

TIME

READING

CORRECTED READING

 

DEPTH

STATION

Hours

mb

mb

ft

 

1325

1345

1350

1400

1415

1515

1615

1622

2125

2145

2150

2153

2153

2200

2230

0010

992.85

994.80

996.25

998.45

1000.70

1001.05

1001.40

999.85

999.25

1006.10

1006.10

1005.50

1006.30

1006.60

1004.35

991.45

992.85

994.85

996.30

998.55

1000.60

1001.25

1001.80

1000.25

1000.25

1007.20

1007.20

1006.60

1007.40

1007.40

1005.45

992.85

0

55

95

157

218

231

246

203

203

393

393

377

399

407

346

0

Top of shaft.

Window into Arête Chamber.

Foot of Arête ladder.

Entrance to Wire Rift.

Foot of Upper Mud Hall ladder.

Quarry Corner mud slope.

Upper Traverse Chamber near Katchenjunga.

High Chamber, Catgut entrance.

High Chamber, Catgut entrance.

Main Stream, Plantation Junction.

Main Stream, Beehive.

Lip of Great Gour.

Gour Hall, Main  Stream.

Main Stream, First Sump.

Dinning Room table.

Entrance.

Accuracy of the Results.  The assumption of a linear rate of change of air pressure with time was borne out by the correspondence of the two corrected pressures in High Chamber. Nevertheless, readings taken during an atmospheric discontinuity, such as is caused by a thunderstorm, would not respond to such a correction.

Conclusions.  In normal conditions, it would appear that the instrument is capable of giving readings to something approaching the reading error of eighteen inches. In addition to its use as a depth measuring instrument, it would be useful to take a series of readings in unsettled weather when the barometric pressure is changing rapidly, at the entrance to a cave and deep within the system simultaneously. From these readings, any time lag between a pressure change at the surface and the deep cave would be measured. Another experiment which would be possible, in connection with an anemometer, would be to determine the pressure differences necessary to produce the string winds which are found in some parts of cave systems.  Finally, to confound all the critics, it would be worthwhile to compare barometric readings of depth with figures taken from an accurate survey of the same cave by conventional methods.

Conclusion

Well, that's it again! The end of the Christmas B.B.; this size of paper and this typewriter.  We’ve got a lot of work to do now before the next B.B. can come out. The stapling machine must be altered, the new typewriter must be got hold of, and the blocks for the cover must be finished and the printing organised.

So January's B.B. may be a bit late.  After that, the new arrangements should be working smoothly and we will make a great effort to get the B.B. out by the first Thursday of each month, as we did until recently.  So keep your fingers crossed, hope for the best and a Merry Christmas.

*****************************************

THE BELFRY BULLETIN FOR CHRISTMAS 1959

Secretary; R.J. Bagshaw, 699 Wells Road, Knowle, Bristol 4.
Editor; S.J. Collins, 33 Richmond Terrace, Clifton, Bristol 8
Postal Department; B. Prewer, 14 Egerton Road, Bath, Somerset.